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Author Bará, S.; Rodríguez-Arós, Á.; Pérez, M.; Tosar, B.; Lima, R.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.
Title Estimating the relative contribution of streetlights, vehicles, and residential lighting to the urban night sky brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res & Tech
Volume Issue October 2018 Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing; traffic; Roadway lighting
Abstract Under stable atmospheric conditions the brightness of the urban sky varies throughout the night following the time course of the anthropogenic emissions of light. Different types of artificial light sources (e.g. streetlights, residential, and vehicle lights) have specific time signatures, and this feature makes it possible to estimate the amount of brightness contributed by each of them. Our approach is based on transforming the time representation of the zenithal night sky brightness into a modal expansion in terms of the time signatures of the different sources of light. The modal coefficients, and hence the absolute and relative contributions of each type of source, can be estimated by means of a linear least squares fit. A practical method for determining the time signatures of different contributing sources is also described, based on wide-field time-lapse photometry of the urban nightscape. Our preliminary results suggest that, besides the dominant streetlight contribution, artificial light leaking out of the windows of residential buildings may account for a significant share of the time-varying part of the zenithal night sky brightness at the measurement locations, whilst the contribution of the vehicle lights seems to be significantly smaller.
Address Área de Óptica, Dept. Física Aplicada, Facultade de Óptica e Optometría, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela 15782, Galicia, Spain. salva.bara(at)usc.es
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2052
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Author Boyce, P.; Fotios, S.; Richards, M.
Title Road lighting and energy saving Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 41 Issue 3 Pages 245-260
Keywords public policy; roadway lighting; energy consumption
Abstract This paper examines how the lighting of roads in the UK might be changed so as to preserve the benefits while minimising energy consumption. It is divided into four sections, these being changes in technology, changes in patterns of use, changes in standards and contracts and changes in the basis of design. Useful changes in technology and patterns of use are available now, but their use will raise the question as to whether or not environmental considerations can override conventional financial constraints. Changes in standards and the basis of design are much more long term. Comparisons of road lighting standards used in different countries show significant differences that deserve examination. As for the basis of design, consideration of the importance of light to fatal and personal injury accidents of different types suggests that road lighting should be concentrated where pedestrians are common, not where speeds are highest. Ultimately, considering carefully what problem road lighting is intended to solve and whether or not road lighting is the best answer is the key to minimising the energy consumption of road lighting without diminishing road safety.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 249
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Author Fotios, S.; Yang, B.; Uttley, J.
Title Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technologying Res & Tech
Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 548-564
Keywords traffic safety; pedestrians; roadway lighting; visibility; light at night
Abstract After dark, road lighting should enhance the visual component of pedestrians’ interpersonal judgements such as evaluating the intent of others. Investigation of lighting effects requires better understanding of the nature of this task as expressed by the typical distance at which the judgement is made (and hence visual size) and the duration of observation, which in past studies have been arbitrary. Better understanding will help with interpretation of the significance of lighting characteristics such as illuminance and light spectrum. Conclusions of comfort distance in past studies are not consistent and hence this article presents new data determined using eye-tracking. We propose that further work on interpersonal judgements should examine the effects of lighting at a distance of 15 m with an observation duration of 500 ms.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 309
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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Author Kostic, A.; Kremic, M.; Djokic, L.; Kostic, M.
Title Light-emitting diodes in street and roadway lighting – a case study involving mesopic effects Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 45 Issue 2 Pages 217-229
Keywords LED; LED lighting; mesopic; street lighting; outdoor lighting; roadway lighting
Abstract The paper considers the justification for the application of light-emitting diode (LED) technology to urban lighting. The results suggest that LEDs are convenient for architectural lighting and deserve to be considered for use in ambient lighting. The recently developed Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) mesopic system enabled the inclusion of mesopic effects into a comprehensive techno-economic analysis, which dealt with efficiency, maintenance and financial aspects of the use of LEDs in street and roadway lighting. It is concluded that the average energy savings when using LED instead of high-pressure sodium (HPS) luminaires amount to 19–26% for single-sided, staggered and opposite layouts, although they are frequently negligible if mesopic effects are not included. The total costs of the LED lighting solutions, even including mesopic effects, are 1.36 to 6.44 times higher than those of the comparable HPS lighting solutions. Therefore, LEDs are questionable for street and roadway lighting.
Address Faculty of Architecture, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 339
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