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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal (up) Opt. Express  
  Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic  
  Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.  
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  ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 351  
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Author Zhou, H.; Liu, L.; Lan, M.; Yang, B.; Wang, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Assessing the Impact of Nightlight Gradients on Street Robbery and Burglary in Cincinnati of Ohio State, USA Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal (up) Remote Sensing  
  Volume 11 Issue 17 Pages 1958  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Crime  
  Abstract Previous research has recognized the importance of edges to crime. Various scholars have explored how one specific type of edges such as physical edges or social edges affect crime, but rarely investigated the importance of the composite edge effect. To address this gap, this study introduces nightlight data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (NPP-VIIRS) to measure composite edges. This study defines edges as nightlight gradients—the maximum change of nightlight from a pixel to its neighbors. Using nightlight gradients and other control variables at the tract level, this study applies negative binomial regression models to investigate the effects of edges on the street robbery rate and the burglary rate in Cincinnati. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of models show that nightlight gradients improve the fitness of models of street robbery and burglary. Also, nightlight gradients make a positive impact on the street robbery rate whilst a negative impact on the burglary rate, both of which are statistically significant under the alpha level of 0.05. The different impacts on these two types of crimes may be explained by the nature of crimes and the in-situ characteristics, including nightlight.  
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  ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2828  
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Author Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal (up) Review of Economics and Statistics  
  Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232  
  Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society  
  Abstract Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167  
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Author Doleac, J.L.; Sanders, N.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Under the Cover of Darkness: How Ambient Light Influences Criminal Activity Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal (up) Review of Economics and Statistics  
  Volume 97 Issue 5 Pages 1093-1103  
  Keywords Public Safety; Crime  
  Abstract We exploit daylight saving time (DST) as an exogenous shock to daylight, using both the discontinuous nature of the policy and the 2007 extension of DST, to consider the impact of light on criminal activity.Regression discontinuity estimates show a 7% decrease in robberies following the shift to DST. As expected, effects are largest during the hours directly affected by the shift in daylight. We discuss our findings within the context of criminal decision making and labor supply, and estimate that the2007 DST extension resulted in $59 million in annual social cost savings from avoided robberies.  
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  ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2836  
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Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal (up) Sci Eng Ethics  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values  
  Abstract This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.  
  Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277  
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