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Author Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M.
Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics
Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232
Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society
Abstract (down) Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167
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Author Clark, B.A.J.
Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety
Abstract (down) Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017
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Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G.
Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract (down) Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872
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Author Marchant, P.R.
Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 91 Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract (down) Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 452
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Author Marchant, P.R.
Title Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London? Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue 104 Pages 39-48
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract (down) Crime counts published by the Home Office for the Metropolitan Police

Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership areas have been collated

across the years 2003-2009. The crime counts over time have been

modelled taking into account the ‘multilevel’ (years within areas)

nature of the data. The key variable of interest, as a predictor of

within-area change of crime, is the proportion of a Core Investment

Period of new Private Finance Initiative street lighting which had been

completed up to the given time point as a predictor of within area

change of crime. The final model gave a 95% confidence interval for

the multiplier by which the number of crimes is increased of (0.87,

1.11), for a fully implemented lighting programme, consistent with

zero effect.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 449
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