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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention  
  Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 487-498  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract (up) The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.  
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  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126  
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Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186  
  Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review  
  Abstract (up) This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790  
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Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics  
  Volume Issue Pages 1-17  
  Keywords Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values  
  Abstract (up) This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.  
  Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277  
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Author DeCoursey, W., Braun, D., & Oza, J. url  openurl
  Title Pedestrian Lighting, Acceptable Levels of Light: A Pilot Project Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Institute for Public Administration Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract (up) This pilot project study was intended to demonstrate that assessing the adequacy of an area’s pedestrian lighting need not be an expensive, time-consuming, or overly complicated process. Though the discussion of methods of pedestrian lighting can become quite technical and involved, as demonstrated in a 2016 IPA report on the topic, “Delaware Transportation Lighting Inventory & Assessment” (http://www.ipa.udel.edu/publications/transportationlighting-2016.pdf), simply observing and recording light levels in a given study area is quite straightforward.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2710  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006 Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Confidence Intervals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; *Lighting; Netherlands; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Safety; *Visual Fields  
  Abstract (up) This study estimates the safety effect of road lighting on accidents in darkness on Dutch roads, using data from an interactive database containing 763,000 injury accidents and 3.3 million property damage accidents covering the period 1987-2006. Two estimators of effect are used, and the results are combined by applying techniques of meta-analysis. Injury accidents are reduced by 50%. This effect is larger than the effects found in most of the earlier studies. The effect on fatal accidents is slightly larger than the effect on injury accidents. The effect during twilight is about 2/3 of the effect in darkness. The effect of road lighting is significantly smaller during adverse weather and road surface conditions than during fine conditions. The effects on pedestrian, bicycle and moped accidents are significantly larger than the effects on automobile and motorcycle accidents. The risk of injury accidents was found to increase in darkness. The average increase in risk was estimated to 17% on lit rural roads and 145% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk during rainy conditions is about 50% on lit rural roads and about 190% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk with respect to pedestrian accidents is about 140% on lit rural roads and about 360% on unlit rural roads.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, 4808 Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19114146 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 250  
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