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Author Marchant, Paul
Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20
Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions
Abstract (up) The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research
Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes A corrected appendix to this paper is available on page 50 of: http://worldtransportjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/26.3-final.pdf. Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862
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Author Raynham, P.; Unwin, J.; Khazova, M.; Tolia, S.
Title The role of lighting in road traffic collisions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 52 Issue 4 Pages 485-494
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract (up) The paper reports a study that examines how to determine if a road traffic collision took place in daylight or in the dark. An innovative method was developed, based on solar altitude, to establish cut-off points of daylight and darkness determined from a study of daylight availability in England, Scotland and Wales. This approach provides a rigorous method to differentiate daytime and night-time collisions. The criteria were used in a study of the collisions reported in the STATS19 data set for the weeks either side of the clock changes that are necessary between Greenwich Mean Time and British Summer Time. By comparing periods with the same clock time either side of the time change, using the aforementioned method, it was possible to isolate collisions within the same time period that during one week occurred in darkness and in the other week in daylight. The initial finding was that there are 19.3% more collisions in the dark periods and there is an even greater increase (31.7%) in pedestrian injuries.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2991
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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J.
Title The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 487-498
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract (up) The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126
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Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R.
Title Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186
Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review
Abstract (up) This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790
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Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E.
Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume Issue Pages 1-17
Keywords Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values
Abstract (up) This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.
Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277
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