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Author Schröter-Schlaack, C.; Schulte-Römer, N.; Revermann, C.
Title Lichtverschmutzung – Ausmaß, gesellschaftliche und ökologische Auswirkungen sowie Handlungsansätze Type Report
Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 186 Issue Pages 1-200
Keywords Review; Skyglow; Ecology; Human Health; Lighting; Public Safety; Remote Sensing
Abstract Künstliches Licht kann als eine der größten technischen Errungenschaften der Menschheit angesehen werden, die erhebliche Veränderungen bzw. Fortschritte der Arbeits- und Lebensweisen ermöglichen. Mit künstlicher Beleuchtung wird aber auch der natürliche Rhythmus von Tag und Nacht verändert und damit das Gesamtgefüge des Naturhaushaltes und der Nachtlandschaft transformiert. Ein natürlich dunkler Nachthimmel ist in Deutschland selten geworden. Licht-glocken über urbanen Gebieten sind weit weg von ihrem Entstehungsort in unbeleuchteten Gebieten noch sichtbar und lassen Sterne und die Milchstraße unkenntlich werden. Nicht nur das direkte elektrische Licht erleuchtet unsere Umwelt, sondern auch der nach oben abgestrahlte und reflektierte Teil des Lichts. Schichten der Atmosphäre, Staub oder Wassertropfen reflektieren und streuen das Licht. Dieser auch als Skyglow bezeichnete Effekt bewirkt eine zusätzliche Erhellung. Neben dieser künstlich erhöhten Himmelshelligkeit kann Licht auch die direkte Umgebung ungewollt aufhellen oder durch Blendung das Sehen einschränken. Licht ist ein wichtiger externer Zeitgeber für die innere Uhr der Lebewesen, an dessen natürlichen Rhythmus sich Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen über Jahrhunderte angepasst haben. So wird vermutet, dass die permanent und periodisch veränderten Lichtverhältnisse durch zunehmende künstliche Beleuchtung negative Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit haben und ebenso zu ökologischen Beeinträchtigungen führen.All diese nichtintendierten Wirkungen der künstlichen Beleuchtung werden unter dem Sammelbegriff Lichtverschmutzung verstanden. Lichtverschmutzung ist hier definiert als unerwünschte Wirkung künstlicher Beleuchtung im Außenbereich, also das Licht, das räumlich (Richtung und Fläche), zeitlich (Tages- und Jahreszeit, Dauer, Periodizität) oder in der Intensität oder spektralen Zusammensetzung (z.B. Ultraviolett- oder Blauanteil) über den reinen Beleuchtungszweck hinaus nicht beabsichtigte Auswirkungen hat (Kuechly et al. 2018). Mit dem vorliegenden Bericht werden der wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis-stand im Hinblick auf Umfang und Trends der Lichtverschmutzung sowie ihre wirtschaftlichen und soziokulturellen, humanmedizinischen und ökologischen Wirkungen zusammengefasst. Auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse und aktueller beleuchtungstechnologischer und lichtplanerischer Möglichkeiten werden Handlungsoptionen abgeleitet, die eine Verringerung der Lichtverschmutzung bei gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der nutzbringenden Ziele der Beleuchtung unterstützen können.
Address (up)
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB) Place of Publication Editor
Language German Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3058
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Author Liu, L.; Zhou, H.; Lan, M.; Wang, Z.
Title Linking Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery to urban crime Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Applied Geography Abbreviated Journal Applied Geography
Volume 125 Issue Pages 102267
Keywords Public Safety; Remote Sensing
Abstract Various environmental criminology theories and empirical studies have linked the urban environment to crime. The crime pattern theory, in particular, argues that edges, either social or physical, affect crime. A recent study has combined both social and physical edges to derive composite edges. A composite edge index measured by NPP-VIIRS satellite nightlights at the census tract level is found to be related to street robbery and burglary. Nightlight images of Luojia 1-01, launched in June 2018, have a much higher spatial resolution than that of NPP-VIIRS. This study applies Luojia 1-01 nightlight data to measure composite edges by nightlight gradients at the smaller census block group level. The effects of the composite edges on street robbery and burglary are explored by negative binomial models. Results show that composite edges measured by Luojia 1-01 nightlight data improve the fitness of models noticeably on street robbery but not on burglary. Nightlight gradients make a statistically significant and positive impact on the street robbery rate, but an insignificant and negative impact on the burglary rate. Furthermore, the composite edge effect on street robbery is more substantial than that on burglary. In sum, this study provides evidence that Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery can help explain crime at the aggregated block group level, but its impact on crime varies by crime type.
Address (up)
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-6228 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3112
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Author Shang, H.
Title Study on the Influence of Port Coastal Light Pollution on Visual Navigation Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Coastal Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Coastal Research
Volume 115 Issue sp1 Pages 250
Keywords Safety; Vision
Abstract Navigation aids are navigation aids for the safety of ships. They are divided into three categories: visual navigation aids, audio navigation aids and radio navigation aids. It provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for water transportation, fishery, marine development and national defense construction, and provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for the establishment of safe economic passage at sea and inside sea, which is an important part of the maritime Silk Road. Visual navigation aids are the most basic navigation aids, sound navigation aids only play a warning role, radio navigation aids have developed into a modern all-weather navigation aids system, especially the popularization of satellite navigation technology, put forward higher requirements for visual navigation aids.
Address (up)
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0749-0208 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3119
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Author Marchant, Paul
Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20
Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions
Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research
Address (up) 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862
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Author Clark, B.A.J.
Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety
Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
Address (up) Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017
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