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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.
Title Street Lighting and Public Safety: New Nighttime Lighting Documentation Method Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication ARCC Conference Repository Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.
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Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2103
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Author Rea, M.; Skinner, N.; Bullough, J.
Title A Novel Barricade Warning Light System Using Wireless Communications Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2018-01-5036 Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Safety
Abstract Workers in construction and transportation sectors are at increased risk for work-related injuries and fatalities by nearby traffic. Barricade-mounted warning lights meeting current specifications do not always provide consistent and adequate visual guidance to drivers and can contribute to glare and reduced safety. Through an implementation of sensors and wireless communications, a novel, intelligent set of warning lights and a tablet-based interface were developed. The lights modulate between 100% and 10% of maximum intensity rather than between 100% and off in order to improve visual guidance and adjust their overall intensity based on ambient conditions. The lights can be synchronized or operated in sequential flash patterns at any frequency between 1 and 4 Hz, and sequential patterns automatically update based on global positioning satellite (GPS) locations displayed in the control interface. A successful field demonstration of the system verified that its functions were viewed favorably by transportation safety personnel.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2117
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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J.
Title The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 34 Issue 4 Pages 487-498
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126
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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S.
Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330
Keywords Public Safety; Vision
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
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ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127
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Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I.
Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.
Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area (up) Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160
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