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Author (down) Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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Author (down) J Uttley,, S Fotios, C Cheal
Title Effect of illuminance and spectrum on peripheral obstacle detection by pedestrians Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 49 Issue 2 Pages 211-227
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract Obstacle detection is an important visual task for pedestrians. An experiment was carried out to measure the ability to detect peripheral obstacles under variations of illuminance and scotopic/photopic luminance ratio and with older and younger test participants. The LED array used in this work enabled scotopic/photopic ratio to be varied whilst chromaticity was held constant. The tests employed a full-scale model with dynamic fixation and walking to better simulate pedestrian experience than in past work. Detection performance increased with illuminance, reaching a plateau at 2.0 lux. A higher scotopic/photopic ratio improved obstacle detection but only at the lowest illuminance used in this study (0.2 lux). Older participants showed poorer obstacle detection performance than younger participants but again only at the lowest illuminance.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1768
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Author (down) Hyari, K.H.; Khelifi, A.; Katkhuda, H.
Title Multiobjective Optimization of Roadway Lighting Projects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Transportation Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Transp. Eng.
Volume Issue Pages 04016024
Keywords Lighting; multiobjective optimization; traffic safety; road safety; lighting design; uniformity; genetic algorithm
Abstract Roadway lighting systems play a major role in maintaining nighttime traffic safety as they reduce both the number and severity of nighttime traffic accidents. While the design of roadway lighting systems involves multiple objectives, past studies have focused on optimizing only one of the multiple objectives that should be considered. This paper presents a multiobjective optimization model for roadway lighting projects that simultaneously optimizes four design objectives. The incorporated objectives are (1) maximizing the average lighting level on the road surface; (2) maximizing the lighting uniformity along the roadway; (3) minimizing the glare to road users produced by the lighting system; and (4) minimizing the cost of operating the lighting system. The model is designed and developed as a multiobjective genetic algorithm to help decision-makers in their endeavor to provide efficient roadway lighting systems that strike a balance between the four conflicting objectives. The present model considers the following six design variables: type of lighting fixture, mounting height, spacing, fixture offset, fixture’s inclination, and fixture’s rotation angle. An application example is analyzed in this paper to clarify the use of the model and display its significant features in producing better lighting arrangements for roadways.
Address Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hashemite Univ., P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan; hyari(at)hu.edu.jo
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ASCE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0733-947X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1405
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Author (down) Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M.
Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics
Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232
Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society
Abstract Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167
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Author (down) He, L.; Páez, A.; Jiao, J.; An, P.; Lu, C.; Mao, W.; Long, D.
Title Ambient Population and Larceny-Theft: A Spatial Analysis Using Mobile Phone Data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 342
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety
Abstract In the spatial analysis of crime, the residential population has been a conventional measure of the population at risk. Recent studies suggest that the ambient population is a useful alternative measure of the population at risk that can better capture the activity patterns of a population. However, current studies are limited by the availability of high precision demographic characteristics, such as social activities and the origins of residents. In this research, we use spatially referenced mobile phone data to measure the size and activity patterns of various types of ambient population, and further investigate the link between urban larceny-theft and population with multiple demographic and activity characteristics. A series of crime attractors, generators, and detractors are also considered in the analysis to account for the spatial variation of crime opportunities. The major findings based on a negative binomial model are three-fold. (1) The size of the non-local population and people’s social regularity calculated from mobile phone big data significantly correlate with the spatial variation of larceny-theft. (2) Crime attractors, generators, and detractors, measured by five types of Points of Interest (POIs), significantly depict the criminality of places and impact opportunities for crime. (3) Higher levels of nighttime light are associated with increased levels of larceny-theft. The results have practical implications for linking the ambient population to crime, and the insights are informative for several theories of crime and crime prevention efforts.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2997
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