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Author DeCoursey, W., Braun, D., & Oza, J.
Title Pedestrian Lighting, Acceptable Levels of Light: A Pilot Project Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Institute for Public Administration Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract This pilot project study was intended to demonstrate that assessing the adequacy of an area’s pedestrian lighting need not be an expensive, time-consuming, or overly complicated process. Though the discussion of methods of pedestrian lighting can become quite technical and involved, as demonstrated in a 2016 IPA report on the topic, “Delaware Transportation Lighting Inventory & Assessment” (http://www.ipa.udel.edu/publications/transportationlighting-2016.pdf), simply observing and recording light levels in a given study area is quite straightforward.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2710
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Author Wood, J.M.
Title Nighttime driving: visual, lighting and visibility challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists) Abbreviated Journal Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords Review; Public Safety; headlights; nighttime driving; older drivers; pedestrians and cyclists; streetlights; visual performance
Abstract PURPOSE: Nighttime driving is dangerous and is one of the most challenging driving situations for most drivers. Fatality rates are higher at night than in the day when adjusted for distances travelled, particularly for crashes involving pedestrians and cyclists. Although there are multiple contributory factors, the low light levels at night are believed to be the major cause of collisions with pedestrians and cyclists at night, most likely due to their reduced visibility. Understanding the visibility problems involved in nighttime driving is thus critical, given the increased risk to road safety. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses research that highlights key differences in the nighttime road environment compared to the day and how this affects visual function and driving performance, together with an overview of studies investigating how driver age and visual status affect nighttime driving performance. Research that has focused on the visibility of vulnerable road users at nighttime (pedestrians and cyclists) is also included. SUMMARY: Collectively, the research evidence suggests that visual function is reduced under the mesopic lighting conditions of night driving and that these effects are exacerbated by increasing age and visual impairment. Light and glare from road lighting and headlights have significant impacts on vision and night driving and these effects are likely to change with evolving technologies, such as LED streetlighting and headlights. Research also highlights the importance of the visibility of vulnerable road users at night and the role of retroreflective clothing in the 'biomotion' configuration for improving their conspicuity and hence safety.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0275-5408 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition (up) Conference
Notes PMID:31875993 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2803
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Author Wood, J.M.; Tyrrell, R.A.; Carberry, T.P.
Title Limitations in drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Hum Factors
Volume 47 Issue 3 Pages 644-653
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; *Automobile Driving/psychology; Clothing; *Darkness; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Reaction Time; Task Performance and Analysis; Visual Perception
Abstract This study quantified drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night. Ten young and 10 older participants drove around a closed road circuit and responded when they first recognized a pedestrian. Four pedestrian clothing and two beam conditions were tested. Results demonstrate that driver age, clothing configuration, headlamp beam, and glare all significantly affect performance. Drivers recognized only 5% of pedestrians in the most challenging condition (low beams, black clothing, glare), whereas drivers recognized 100% of the pedestrians who wore retroreflective clothing configured to depict biological motion (no glare). In the absence of glare, mean recognition distances varied from 0.0 m (older drivers, low beam, black clothing) to 220 m (722 feet; younger drivers, high beam, retroreflective biomotion). These data provide new motivation to minimize interactions between vehicular and pedestrian traffic at night and suggest garment designs to maximize pedestrian conspicuity when these interactions are unavoidable.
Address Center for Eye Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. j.wood@qut.edu.au
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ISSN 0018-7208 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition (up) Conference
Notes PMID:16435703 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2804
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Author Zhou, H.; Liu, L.; Lan, M.; Yang, B.; Wang, Z.
Title Assessing the Impact of Nightlight Gradients on Street Robbery and Burglary in Cincinnati of Ohio State, USA Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 17 Pages 1958
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Crime
Abstract Previous research has recognized the importance of edges to crime. Various scholars have explored how one specific type of edges such as physical edges or social edges affect crime, but rarely investigated the importance of the composite edge effect. To address this gap, this study introduces nightlight data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (NPP-VIIRS) to measure composite edges. This study defines edges as nightlight gradients—the maximum change of nightlight from a pixel to its neighbors. Using nightlight gradients and other control variables at the tract level, this study applies negative binomial regression models to investigate the effects of edges on the street robbery rate and the burglary rate in Cincinnati. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of models show that nightlight gradients improve the fitness of models of street robbery and burglary. Also, nightlight gradients make a positive impact on the street robbery rate whilst a negative impact on the burglary rate, both of which are statistically significant under the alpha level of 0.05. The different impacts on these two types of crimes may be explained by the nature of crimes and the in-situ characteristics, including nightlight.
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ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition (up) Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2828
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Author Gupta, N.; Lata, H.; Kaur, A.
Title Effect of glare on night time driving in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic professional drivers Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research Abbreviated Journal Int J Appl Basic Med Res
Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 128-131
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Glare; Alcohol; driving; glare recovery
Abstract CONTEXT: The use of alcohol during nighttime driving may affect recovery from glare leading to increased traffic accidents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the glare recovery time in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcoholic (n = 25) and non-alcoholic drivers (n = 25) were subjected to glare recovery test and they also filled a questionnaire about the nighttime driving. RESULTS: The glare recovery time got prolonged in alcoholic drivers and they also complained of more problems during nighttime driving as compared to non-alcoholic drivers. CONCLUSIONS: The use of alcohol delays recovery from glare during nighttime driving. This can have considerable implications for developing countries in improving regulations for driving licensing.
Address Department of Physiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab, India
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Publisher Kluwer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2229-516X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition (up) Conference
Notes PMID:23776826; PMCID:PMC3678693 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2834
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