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Author Morrow, E.N.; Hutton, S.A. url  openurl
  Title The Chicago Alley Lighting Project: Final Evaluation Report Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Begun in October of 1998, the first part of the plan sought to upgrade and improve the city's 175,000 streetlights, which illuminate the arterial and residential streets. The second part of the plan involved repairing and upgrading the lighting in and around viaducts and Chicago Transit Authority stations. The final part of the plan has been to boost lighting levels in alleys across the city as a tool for public safety and fighting crime. In the past, 90-watt lights illuminated most city alleys; alley lighting levels have been increased by installing new fixtures that can accommodate 250-watt bulbs. The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority undertook an evaluation to assess the impact of increased alley lighting on crime rates in two eight-square-block areas, with emphasis on crimes that were most likely to have occurred in alleys. The evaluation first examined change in the experimental area that received increased alley lighting over a 1-year period prior to increased alley lighting and a 1-year period thereafter. Next, change over a 6-month period before and after increased alley lighting was examined for both the experimental area and the control area. The evaluation found that reported offenses increased between the 1-year preinstallation and 1-year postinstallation study period in the experimental area where alley lighting was improved. The evaluation also found that the experimental area experienced more notable increases in reported incidents over a 6-month preinstallation and 6-month postinstallation study period compared to the control area. The evaluation could not provide a definitive explanation of these findings.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 453  
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Author Atkins, S.; Husain, S.; Storey, A. url  openurl
  Title The Influence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime". Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Crime prevention unit paper No. 28, London Home Office Abbreviated Journal  
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  Keywords Public Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 454  
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Author Ramsay, M.; Newton, R. url  openurl
  Title THE EFFECT OF BETTER STREET LIGHTING ON CRIME AND FEAR: A REVIEW Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Crime prevention unit paper No. 29, London Home Office Abbreviated Journal  
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  Keywords Public Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 455  
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Author Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 1: Little or No Benefit. Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
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  Keywords Society; Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1016  
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