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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 1: Little or No Benefit. Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Society; Safety  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1016  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety  
  Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.  
  Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017  
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages (down)  
  Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies  
  Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
 
  Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224  
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Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States  
  Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.  
  Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clanton, N.; Gibbons, R.; Garcia, J.; Barber, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study Type Report
  Year 2014 Publication Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Abbreviated Journal NEEA  
  Volume Issue E14-286 Pages (down)  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Planning; Vision  
  Abstract The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and the City of Seattle partnered to evaluate the future of solid state street lighting in the Pacific Northwest with a two-night demonstration in Seattle's Ballard neighborhood in March 2012. The study evaluates the effectiveness of LED streetlights on nighttime driver object detection visibility as function of light source spectral distribution (color temperature in degrees K) and light distribution. Clanton & Associates and VTTI also evaluated adaptive lighting (tuning of streetlights during periods of reduced vehicular and pedestrian activity) at three levels: one hundred percent of full light output, fifty percent of full light output, and twenty-five percent of full light output. The study, led by Clanton & Associates, Continuum Industries, and the VTTI, built upon previous visual performance studies conducted in Anchorage, Alaska; San Diego, California; and San Jose, California. The use of LED technology for city street lighting is becoming more widespread. While these lights are primarily touted for their energy efficiency, the combination of LEDs with advanced control technology, changes to lighting criteria, and a better understanding of human mesopic (low light level) visibility creates an enormous potential for energy savings and improved motorist and pedestrian visibility and safety. Data from these tests support the following statements: LED luminaires with a correlated color temperature of 4100K provide the highest detection distance, including statistically significantly better detection distance when compared to HPS luminaires of higher wattage. The non-uniformity of the lighting on the roadway surface provides a visibility enhancement and greater contrast for visibility. Contrast of objects, both positive and negative, is a better indicator of visibility than is average luminance level. Dimming the LED luminaires to fifty percent of IES RP-8 levels did not significantly reduce object detection distance in dry pavement conditions. Participants perceived dimming of sidewalks as less acceptable than dimming to the same level on the roadway. Asymmetric lighting did reduce glare and performed similarly to the symmetric lighting at the same color temperature (4100K).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1763  
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