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Author Ramsay, M.; Newton, R. url  openurl
  Title THE EFFECT OF BETTER STREET LIGHTING ON CRIME AND FEAR: A REVIEW Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Crime prevention unit paper No. 29, London Home Office Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Public Safety  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 455  
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Author Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 1: Little or No Benefit. Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Society; Safety  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1016  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages (down)  
  Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety  
  Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.  
  Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor  
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  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017  
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health  
  Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages (down)  
  Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies  
  Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
 
  Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224  
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