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Author Cote-Lussier, C.; Knudby, A.; Barnett, T.A.
Title A novel low-cost method for assessing intra-urban variation in night time light and applications to public health Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Social Science & Medicine (1982) Abbreviated Journal Soc Sci Med
Volume 248 Issue Pages 112820
Keywords Remote sensing; *International space station; *Night time light; *Public health; *Safety; *Urban
Abstract Night time lighting (NTL) pollution is a public health concern given its known impact on a range of health outcomes. The daily cycle of the hue of natural ambient light shifting from relatively blue-white light at noon to relatively yellow-red light at sunset is important for human functioning. Disruptions of the circadian clock can result in melatonin suppression, sleep and mood disorders, and increased risks of cancer in adults. Current measures of intra-urban variation in NTL are based on costly in-person or coarse satellite image-based assessments. The central objective of the current study is to validate a novel low-cost measure of intra-urban NTL variation. Estimates of red, green and blue NTL intensity were derived from a cloud-free night time image of the city of Montreal, Canada, taken from the International Space Station (ISS). The new measures are shown to converge with in-person assessed NTL and to predict known child health-related outcomes. Specifically, the results suggest that ISS-assessed blue NTL is associated with feelings of safety and self-reported health. In conclusion, ISS-based measures of NTL, particularly of blue NTL, are valid indicators of intra-urban variation in NTL for applications in public health. Limitations of, and future directions for, the method are discussed.
Address Department of Family Medicine, McGill University, 5858, Chemin de la Cote-des-Neiges, Suite 300, Montreal, QC, H3S 1Z1, Canada; Unite d'epidemiologie et de biostatistique, Centre INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier Sante Biotechnologie, 531 Boul. des Prairies, Laval, Quebec, H7V 1B7, Canada; Centre de recherche du CHU Sainte-Justine, 5757 Avenue Decelles, Montreal, Quebec, H3S 2C3, Canada; carolyn.cote-lussier ( at ) ucs.inrs.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0277-9536 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32036268 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3400
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Author Smith, L.A.; Larsen, C.A.; Johnson, K.L.
Title Are “quiet-at-night” initiatives impacting staff alertness? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nursing Abbreviated Journal Nursing
Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 61-62
Keywords Public Safety; Human Health
Abstract PATIENT SATISFACTION scores have been in the national spotlight since 2007 when Medicare began to link hospital reimbursement with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores. Patients are asked to respond to this question: “During this hospital stay, how often was the area around your room quiet at night?” (Answer choices: Never, sometimes, usually, and always).1 Many hospitals, including ours, have worked diligently to improve patient satisfaction with quiet-at-night initiatives.

This article describes our quiet-at-night initiatives and concerns that these initiatives were impairing our night-shift staff's alertness. We addressed these concerns by conducting a survey; its results led us to change our initiatives to improve staff wakefulness while maintaining patient satisfaction.
Address Lisa A. Smith is an administrative nursing supervisor at Banner University Medical Center-Phoenix in Phoenix, Ariz. Charles A. Larsen is a director of nursing at Banner Baywood Medical Center and Banner Heart Hospital in Mesa, Ariz. Karen L. Johnson is director of nursing research at Banner Health in Phoenix, Ariz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0360-4039 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:28027137 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1617
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Author Bullough, J.D.; Skinner, N.P.
Title Real-World Demonstrations of Novel Pedestrian Crosswalk Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume 2661 Issue Pages 62-68
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract Outdoor urban pedestrian lighting serves multiple purposes and should do so in the most efficient and economic manner. An important purpose of outdoor urban pedestrian lighting is to support the safety of pedestrians, particularly those who interact with adjacent vehicle traffic, while enhancing pedestrians’ perceptions of personal safety and security. A review of published literature, as well as the demonstration activities summarized, indicates the potential for bollard-level crosswalk lighting to enhance pedestrian visibility and to improve safety at crosswalks, particularly at locations where the presence of a crosswalk might not be expected by approaching drivers. Such locations include midblock crossings, roundabouts, and locations near schools and other public venues that might experience high levels of pedestrian traffic at sporadic or unexpected times.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1723
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Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G.
Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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