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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I.
Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express
Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056
Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic
Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 1094-4087 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 351
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Author Marchant, Paul
Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20
Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions
Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research
Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 1352-7614 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes A corrected appendix to this paper is available on page 50 of: http://worldtransportjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/26.3-final.pdf. Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862
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Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E.
Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume Issue Pages 1-17
Keywords Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values
Abstract This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.
Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN (up) 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277
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Author Schuler, L.D.; Schatz, R.; Berweger, C.D.
Title From global radiance to an increased local political awareness of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environmental Science & Policy
Volume 89 Issue Pages 142-152
Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Animals
Abstract We present a novel transparent method to analyze measurements of the Suomi NPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite in night vision, into luminous intensity and luminance on the community level, with a special focus to address light planners and non-experts, and for the first time, to further address politicians, decision-makers and law-makers, and governmental agencies. We checked the propagated efficiency of road lighting and its impact on luminous flux, and identified a waste of light emissions in the largest city of Switzerland, Zurich. We looked at security (issues like criminal acts) and found no correlation with communities’ luminous intensity. We assessed road safety (accidents) against local luminance and found no evidence of darkness being more risky when the overall distribution of illuminance on roads is considered. We screened crayfish habitats in the Canton of Zurich against local illuminance and found clear evidence of preferred darkness for the living. Based on this finding, we propose an upper limit for light immissions in the crayfish habitats. These four analyses have been chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of Suomi NPP's coverage in combination with our approach. We could apply it to ecological, social and economical topics. We hope others will follow and we can draw more attention of governments to take action to reduce the light pollution on local levels, like Langnau am Albis of Switzerland has exemplified.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 1462-9011 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1965
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P.
Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies
Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 1470-2738 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224
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