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Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G.
Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record
Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872
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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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Author Hyari, K.H.; Khelifi, A.; Katkhuda, H.
Title Multiobjective Optimization of Roadway Lighting Projects Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Transportation Engineering Abbreviated Journal J. Transp. Eng.
Volume Issue Pages 04016024
Keywords Lighting; multiobjective optimization; traffic safety; road safety; lighting design; uniformity; genetic algorithm
Abstract Roadway lighting systems play a major role in maintaining nighttime traffic safety as they reduce both the number and severity of nighttime traffic accidents. While the design of roadway lighting systems involves multiple objectives, past studies have focused on optimizing only one of the multiple objectives that should be considered. This paper presents a multiobjective optimization model for roadway lighting projects that simultaneously optimizes four design objectives. The incorporated objectives are (1) maximizing the average lighting level on the road surface; (2) maximizing the lighting uniformity along the roadway; (3) minimizing the glare to road users produced by the lighting system; and (4) minimizing the cost of operating the lighting system. The model is designed and developed as a multiobjective genetic algorithm to help decision-makers in their endeavor to provide efficient roadway lighting systems that strike a balance between the four conflicting objectives. The present model considers the following six design variables: type of lighting fixture, mounting height, spacing, fixture offset, fixture’s inclination, and fixture’s rotation angle. An application example is analyzed in this paper to clarify the use of the model and display its significant features in producing better lighting arrangements for roadways.
Address Dept. of Civil Engineering, Hashemite Univ., P.O. Box 150459, Zarqa 13115, Jordan; hyari(at)hu.edu.jo
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher ASCE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0733-947X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1405
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Author Shang, H.
Title Study on the Influence of Port Coastal Light Pollution on Visual Navigation Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Journal of Coastal Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Coastal Research
Volume 115 Issue sp1 Pages 250
Keywords Safety; Vision
Abstract Navigation aids are navigation aids for the safety of ships. They are divided into three categories: visual navigation aids, audio navigation aids and radio navigation aids. It provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for water transportation, fishery, marine development and national defense construction, and provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for the establishment of safe economic passage at sea and inside sea, which is an important part of the maritime Silk Road. Visual navigation aids are the most basic navigation aids, sound navigation aids only play a warning role, radio navigation aids have developed into a modern all-weather navigation aids system, especially the popularization of satellite navigation technology, put forward higher requirements for visual navigation aids.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 0749-0208 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3119
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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S.
Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330
Keywords Public Safety; Vision
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN (up) 1093-9741 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127
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