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Author Gibbons, R.; Terry, T.; Bhagavathula, R.; Meyer, J.; Lewis, A.
Title Applicability of mesopic factors to the driving task Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 48 Issue 1 Pages 70-82
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract With the advent of light-emitting diode technology being applied to roadway lighting, the spectral power distribution of the light source is becoming much more important. In this experiment, the detection of pedestrians at five adaptation levels under three light sources, high pressure sodium and light emitting diodes of two colour temperatures was measured in realistic roadway scenarios. The results show that while the light source type was not significant, an increase in adaptation luminance increased the detection distance. As the offset of the object to the roadway increased, some spectral effects became more significant; however, this effect was not consistent across all angles of eccentricity. The conclusions from this work indicate that mesopic factors may not be applicable on high-speed roads.
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ISSN (up) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1382
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Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R.
Title Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186
Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review
Abstract This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.
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ISSN (up) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790
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Author Raynham, P.; Unwin, J.; Khazova, M.; Tolia, S.
Title The role of lighting in road traffic collisions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 52 Issue 4 Pages 485-494
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract The paper reports a study that examines how to determine if a road traffic collision took place in daylight or in the dark. An innovative method was developed, based on solar altitude, to establish cut-off points of daylight and darkness determined from a study of daylight availability in England, Scotland and Wales. This approach provides a rigorous method to differentiate daytime and night-time collisions. The criteria were used in a study of the collisions reported in the STATS19 data set for the weeks either side of the clock changes that are necessary between Greenwich Mean Time and British Summer Time. By comparing periods with the same clock time either side of the time change, using the aforementioned method, it was possible to isolate collisions within the same time period that during one week occurred in darkness and in the other week in daylight. The initial finding was that there are 19.3% more collisions in the dark periods and there is an even greater increase (31.7%) in pedestrian injuries.
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ISSN (up) 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2991
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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
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ISSN (up) 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788
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Author Marchant, P.
Title Evaluating area-wide crime-reduction measures Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance
Volume 2 Issue 2 Pages 62-65
Keywords lighting; crime; safety
Abstract When we look around an imperfect world, we feel an understandable impulse to improve matters. We may therefore decide to intervene by prescribing medical treatment or by introducing crime reduction measures. But how do we know that what we do is likely to work? In medicine the standard answer is to do a trial; not surprisingly the same is true in crime reduction. But, says Paul Marchant, the lessons learned from medical trials have not been implemented in the latter field.
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ISSN (up) 1740-9705 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 253
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