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Author Ditton, J.; Nair, G.; Bannister, J.
Title The Cost-Effectiveness of Improved Street Lighting as a Crime Prevention Measure Type Journal Article
Year 1996 Publication The Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal
Volume 61 Issue (up) 4 Pages 251–256
Keywords Society; Safety
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1031
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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J.
Title The role of ambient light level in fatal crashes: inferences from daylight saving time transitions Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 34 Issue (up) 4 Pages 487-498
Keywords Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract The purpose of this study was to estimate the size of the influence of ambient light level on fatal pedestrian and vehicle crashes in three scenarios. The scenarios were: fatal pedestrian crashes at intersections, fatal pedestrian crashes on dark rural roads, and fatal single-vehicle run-off-road crashes on dark, curved roads. Each scenario's sensitivity to light level was evaluated by comparing the number of fatal crashes across changes to and from daylight saving time, within daily time periods in which an abrupt change in light level occurs relative to official clock time. The analyses included 11 years of fatal crashes in the United States, between 1987 and 1997. Scenarios involving pedestrians were most sensitive to light level, in some cases showing up to seven times more risk at night over daytime. In contrast, single-vehicle run-off-road crashes showed little difference between light and dark time periods, suggesting factors other than light level play the dominant role in these crashes. These results are discussed in the context of the possible safety improvements offered by new developments in adaptive vehicle headlighting.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2126
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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S.
Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors
Volume 2 Issue (up) 4 Pages 313-330
Keywords Public Safety; Vision
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
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ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127
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Author Jørgensen, L. D., Tambo, T., & Xydis, G.
Title An efficiency evaluation of radar‐based obstruction lights controlling at a wind turbine test site Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Wind Energy Abbreviated Journal
Volume 22 Issue (up) 4 Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract In this study, an obstruction lights controlling (OLC) system based on a Terma SCANTER 5000 radar has been installed at a test centre for large wind turbines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the OLC system and to improve this efficiency by introducing new technological features. Once the first assessment had been carried out, new software with improved tracking functionalities was installed to the radar. With the new software, a second assessment was made to compare the new performance to the old one. To analyse the tracks, geographic information system (GIS) tools have been used. A new MATLAB script was developed to automate the assessment as well as to gather data on the tracks. These data sets were used to improve the system performance by introducing a radar cross section (RCS)/speed filter. The outcome of the study is a filter that can be implemented on the radar system to improve the efficiency of the system and reduce the time that obstruction lights need to be on for by 62.59%, without compromising the integrity of the system.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2298
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Author Raynham, P.; Unwin, J.; Khazova, M.; Tolia, S.
Title The role of lighting in road traffic collisions Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 52 Issue (up) 4 Pages 485-494
Keywords Public Safety
Abstract The paper reports a study that examines how to determine if a road traffic collision took place in daylight or in the dark. An innovative method was developed, based on solar altitude, to establish cut-off points of daylight and darkness determined from a study of daylight availability in England, Scotland and Wales. This approach provides a rigorous method to differentiate daytime and night-time collisions. The criteria were used in a study of the collisions reported in the STATS19 data set for the weeks either side of the clock changes that are necessary between Greenwich Mean Time and British Summer Time. By comparing periods with the same clock time either side of the time change, using the aforementioned method, it was possible to isolate collisions within the same time period that during one week occurred in darkness and in the other week in daylight. The initial finding was that there are 19.3% more collisions in the dark periods and there is an even greater increase (31.7%) in pedestrian injuries.
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2991
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