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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S.
Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors
Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330
Keywords (up) Public Safety; Vision
Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127
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Author He, L.; Páez, A.; Jiao, J.; An, P.; Lu, C.; Mao, W.; Long, D.
Title Ambient Population and Larceny-Theft: A Spatial Analysis Using Mobile Phone Data Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi
Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 342
Keywords (up) Remote Sensing; Public Safety
Abstract In the spatial analysis of crime, the residential population has been a conventional measure of the population at risk. Recent studies suggest that the ambient population is a useful alternative measure of the population at risk that can better capture the activity patterns of a population. However, current studies are limited by the availability of high precision demographic characteristics, such as social activities and the origins of residents. In this research, we use spatially referenced mobile phone data to measure the size and activity patterns of various types of ambient population, and further investigate the link between urban larceny-theft and population with multiple demographic and activity characteristics. A series of crime attractors, generators, and detractors are also considered in the analysis to account for the spatial variation of crime opportunities. The major findings based on a negative binomial model are three-fold. (1) The size of the non-local population and people’s social regularity calculated from mobile phone big data significantly correlate with the spatial variation of larceny-theft. (2) Crime attractors, generators, and detractors, measured by five types of Points of Interest (POIs), significantly depict the criminality of places and impact opportunities for crime. (3) Higher levels of nighttime light are associated with increased levels of larceny-theft. The results have practical implications for linking the ambient population to crime, and the insights are informative for several theories of crime and crime prevention efforts.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2997
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Author Schuler, L.D.; Schatz, R.; Berweger, C.D.
Title From global radiance to an increased local political awareness of light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Environmental Science & Policy Abbreviated Journal Environmental Science & Policy
Volume 89 Issue Pages 142-152
Keywords (up) Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Animals
Abstract We present a novel transparent method to analyze measurements of the Suomi NPP (Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership) satellite in night vision, into luminous intensity and luminance on the community level, with a special focus to address light planners and non-experts, and for the first time, to further address politicians, decision-makers and law-makers, and governmental agencies. We checked the propagated efficiency of road lighting and its impact on luminous flux, and identified a waste of light emissions in the largest city of Switzerland, Zurich. We looked at security (issues like criminal acts) and found no correlation with communities’ luminous intensity. We assessed road safety (accidents) against local luminance and found no evidence of darkness being more risky when the overall distribution of illuminance on roads is considered. We screened crayfish habitats in the Canton of Zurich against local illuminance and found clear evidence of preferred darkness for the living. Based on this finding, we propose an upper limit for light immissions in the crayfish habitats. These four analyses have been chosen to demonstrate the usefulness of Suomi NPP's coverage in combination with our approach. We could apply it to ecological, social and economical topics. We hope others will follow and we can draw more attention of governments to take action to reduce the light pollution on local levels, like Langnau am Albis of Switzerland has exemplified.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1462-9011 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1965
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Author Zhou, H.; Liu, L.; Lan, M.; Yang, B.; Wang, Z.
Title Assessing the Impact of Nightlight Gradients on Street Robbery and Burglary in Cincinnati of Ohio State, USA Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing
Volume 11 Issue 17 Pages 1958
Keywords (up) Remote Sensing; Public Safety; Crime
Abstract Previous research has recognized the importance of edges to crime. Various scholars have explored how one specific type of edges such as physical edges or social edges affect crime, but rarely investigated the importance of the composite edge effect. To address this gap, this study introduces nightlight data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite sensor on the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership Satellite (NPP-VIIRS) to measure composite edges. This study defines edges as nightlight gradients—the maximum change of nightlight from a pixel to its neighbors. Using nightlight gradients and other control variables at the tract level, this study applies negative binomial regression models to investigate the effects of edges on the street robbery rate and the burglary rate in Cincinnati. The Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) of models show that nightlight gradients improve the fitness of models of street robbery and burglary. Also, nightlight gradients make a positive impact on the street robbery rate whilst a negative impact on the burglary rate, both of which are statistically significant under the alpha level of 0.05. The different impacts on these two types of crimes may be explained by the nature of crimes and the in-situ characteristics, including nightlight.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2072-4292 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2828
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Author Wood, J.M.
Title Nighttime driving: visual, lighting and visibility challenges Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics : the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists) Abbreviated Journal Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
Volume Issue Pages in press
Keywords (up) Review; Public Safety; headlights; nighttime driving; older drivers; pedestrians and cyclists; streetlights; visual performance
Abstract PURPOSE: Nighttime driving is dangerous and is one of the most challenging driving situations for most drivers. Fatality rates are higher at night than in the day when adjusted for distances travelled, particularly for crashes involving pedestrians and cyclists. Although there are multiple contributory factors, the low light levels at night are believed to be the major cause of collisions with pedestrians and cyclists at night, most likely due to their reduced visibility. Understanding the visibility problems involved in nighttime driving is thus critical, given the increased risk to road safety. RECENT FINDINGS: This review discusses research that highlights key differences in the nighttime road environment compared to the day and how this affects visual function and driving performance, together with an overview of studies investigating how driver age and visual status affect nighttime driving performance. Research that has focused on the visibility of vulnerable road users at nighttime (pedestrians and cyclists) is also included. SUMMARY: Collectively, the research evidence suggests that visual function is reduced under the mesopic lighting conditions of night driving and that these effects are exacerbated by increasing age and visual impairment. Light and glare from road lighting and headlights have significant impacts on vision and night driving and these effects are likely to change with evolving technologies, such as LED streetlighting and headlights. Research also highlights the importance of the visibility of vulnerable road users at night and the role of retroreflective clothing in the 'biomotion' configuration for improving their conspicuity and hence safety.
Address School of Optometry and Vision Science and Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0275-5408 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31875993 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2803
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