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Author Clark, B.A.J.
Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety
Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017
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Author Stone, T.; Santoni de Sio, F.; Vermaas, P.E.
Title Driving in the Dark: Designing Autonomous Vehicles for Reducing Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume Issue Pages 1-17
Keywords (up) Society; Darkness; Planning; Public Safety; Design for values
Abstract This paper proposes that autonomous vehicles should be designed to reduce light pollution. In support of this specific proposal, a moral assessment of autonomous vehicles more comprehensive than the dilemmatic life-and-death questions of trolley problem-style situations is presented. The paper therefore consists of two interrelated arguments. The first is that autonomous vehicles are currently still a technology in development, and not one that has acquired its definitive shape, meaning the design of both the vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure is open-ended. Design for values is utilized to articulate a path forward, by which engineering ethics should strive to incorporate values into a technology during its development phase. Second, it is argued that nighttime lighting-a critical supporting infrastructure-should be a prima facie consideration for autonomous vehicles during their development phase. It is shown that a reduction in light pollution, and more boldly a better balance of lighting and darkness, can be achieved via the design of future autonomous vehicles. Two case studies are examined (parking lots and highways) through which autonomous vehicles may be designed for “driving in the dark.” Nighttime lighting issues are thus inserted into a broader ethics of autonomous vehicles, while simultaneously introducing questions of autonomous vehicles into debates about light pollution.
Address Department Ethics/Philosophy of Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, Netherlands
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:30903370 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2277
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Author Blobaum, A.; Hunecke, M.
Title Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space: The Impacts of Physical Features and Personal Factors. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Environment and Behavior Abbreviated Journal
Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages 465–486
Keywords (up) Society; Safety
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1000
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title Perceptions of Safety at Night in Different Lighting Conditions Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 32 Issue 2 Pages 79–91
Keywords (up) Society; Safety
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1008
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Author Boyce, P.R.; Gutkowski, J.M.
Title The if, why and what of street lighting and street crime: A review Type Journal Article
Year 1995 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 27 Issue 2 Pages 103-112
Keywords (up) Society; Safety
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1009
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