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Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W.
Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research
Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145
Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety
Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 638
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Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L.
Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780
Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology
Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.
Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18760107 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 643
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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J.
Title Determining the potential safety benefit of improved lighting in three pedestrian crash scenarios Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 638-647
Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Darkness/*adverse effects; *Environment Design; Humans; Lighting/*standards; Prevalence; Risk; *Safety; Time; *Visual Perception; *Walking
Abstract The influence of light level was determined for three pedestrian crash scenarios associated with three adaptive headlighting solutions-curve lighting, motorway lighting, and cornering light. These results were coupled to corresponding prevalence data for each scenario to derive measures of annual lifesaving potential. For each scenario, the risk associated with light level was determined using daylight saving time (DST) transitions to produce a dark/light interval risk ratio; prevalence was determined using the corresponding annual crash rate in darkness for each scenario. For curve lighting, pedestrian crashes on curved roadways were examined; for motorway lighting, crashes associated with high speed roadways were examined; and for cornering light, crashes involving turning vehicles at intersections were examined. In the curve analysis, lower dark/light crash ratios were observed for curved sections of roadway compared to straight roads. In the motorway analysis, posted speed limit was the dominant predictor of this ratio for the fatal crash dataset; road function class was the dominant predictor of the ratio for the fatal/nonfatal dataset. Finally, in the intersection crash analysis, the dark/light ratio for turning vehicles was lower than for nonturning vehicles; and the ratio at intersections was lower than at non-intersections. Relative safety need was determined by combining the dark/light ratio with prevalence data to produce an idealized measure of lifesaving potential. While all three scenarios suggested a potential for safety improvement, scenarios related to high speed roadway environments showed the greatest potential.
Address The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, USA. jsully@umich.edu <jsully@umich.edu>
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17126278 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 648
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P.
Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies
Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224
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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S.
Title Impressions of Lighting in Public Squares After Dark Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environment & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Env. & Behav.
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 227-254
Keywords Psychology; public lighting; public safety; security; crime; perception; outdoor lighting
Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public squares. Following studies on office interior lighting, the present research manipulated three modes of lighting—non-uniform–uniform, peripheral–overhead, and dim–bright—in three virtual squares. One study had 32 participants (15 men, 17 women) judge the spaciousness and privacy of each of the 24 public squares. A second study had a different group of 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) rate the appeal, safety from crime, and excitement of each square. Study 1 found that judged spaciousness increased with uniform and bright lighting, and that privacy increased with non-uniform, dim, and peripheral lighting. Study 2 found that rated appeal increased with uniform and bright lighting, as did safety from crime and excitement. Across the two studies, the uniform and bright lighting conditions contributed most to the kinds of favorable experiences people might expect to have in public spaces after dark.
Address City & Regional Planning, Ohio State University, 200 Knowlton Hall 275 W Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Email: nasar.1(at)osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1390
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