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Author He, L.; Páez, A.; Jiao, J.; An, P.; Lu, C.; Mao, W.; Long, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Ambient Population and Larceny-Theft: A Spatial Analysis Using Mobile Phone Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information Abbreviated Journal Ijgi  
  Volume 9 Issue 6 Pages 342  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Public Safety  
  Abstract In the spatial analysis of crime, the residential population has been a conventional measure of the population at risk. Recent studies suggest that the ambient population is a useful alternative measure of the population at risk that can better capture the activity patterns of a population. However, current studies are limited by the availability of high precision demographic characteristics, such as social activities and the origins of residents. In this research, we use spatially referenced mobile phone data to measure the size and activity patterns of various types of ambient population, and further investigate the link between urban larceny-theft and population with multiple demographic and activity characteristics. A series of crime attractors, generators, and detractors are also considered in the analysis to account for the spatial variation of crime opportunities. The major findings based on a negative binomial model are three-fold. (1) The size of the non-local population and people’s social regularity calculated from mobile phone big data significantly correlate with the spatial variation of larceny-theft. (2) Crime attractors, generators, and detractors, measured by five types of Points of Interest (POIs), significantly depict the criminality of places and impact opportunities for crime. (3) Higher levels of nighttime light are associated with increased levels of larceny-theft. The results have practical implications for linking the ambient population to crime, and the insights are informative for several theories of crime and crime prevention efforts.  
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  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
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  ISSN 2220-9964 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2997  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006 Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Confidence Intervals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; *Lighting; Netherlands; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Safety; *Visual Fields  
  Abstract This study estimates the safety effect of road lighting on accidents in darkness on Dutch roads, using data from an interactive database containing 763,000 injury accidents and 3.3 million property damage accidents covering the period 1987-2006. Two estimators of effect are used, and the results are combined by applying techniques of meta-analysis. Injury accidents are reduced by 50%. This effect is larger than the effects found in most of the earlier studies. The effect on fatal accidents is slightly larger than the effect on injury accidents. The effect during twilight is about 2/3 of the effect in darkness. The effect of road lighting is significantly smaller during adverse weather and road surface conditions than during fine conditions. The effects on pedestrian, bicycle and moped accidents are significantly larger than the effects on automobile and motorcycle accidents. The risk of injury accidents was found to increase in darkness. The average increase in risk was estimated to 17% on lit rural roads and 145% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk during rainy conditions is about 50% on lit rural roads and about 190% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk with respect to pedestrian accidents is about 140% on lit rural roads and about 360% on unlit rural roads.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, 4808 Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19114146 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 250  
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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Author Jägerbrand, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New Framework of Sustainable Indicators for Outdoor LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Lighting and SSL (Solid State Lighting) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 1028-1063  
  Keywords Conservation; sustainable development; exterior; ecological; environmental; economic; impact; light pollution; safety; visibility; social  
  Abstract Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and SSL (solid state lighting) are relatively new light sources, but are already widely applied for outdoor lighting. Despite this, there is little available information allowing planners and designers to evaluate and weigh different sustainability aspects of LED/SSL lighting when making decisions. Based on a literature review, this paper proposes a framework of sustainability indicators and/or measures that can be used for a general evaluation or to highlight certain objectives or aspects of special interest when choosing LED/SSL lighting. LED/SSL lighting is reviewed from a conventional sustainable development perspective, i.e., covering the three dimensions, including ecological, economic and social sustainability. The new framework of sustainable indicators allow prioritization when choosing LED/SSL products and can thereby help ensure that short-term decisions on LED/SSL lighting systems are in line with long-term sustainability goals established in society. The new framework can also be a beneficial tool for planners, decision-makers, developers and lighting designers, or for consumers wishing to use LED/SSL lighting in a sustainable manner. Moreover, since some aspects of LED/SSL lighting have not yet been thoroughly studied or developed, some possible future indicators are suggested.  
  Address The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden; E-Mail: annika.jagerbrand@vti.se; Tel.: +46-(0)-13-204219; Fax: +46-(0)-13-141436  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) English Summary Language Enlgish Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1095  
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Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627  
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