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Author Smith, L.A.; Larsen, C.A.; Johnson, K.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Are “quiet-at-night” initiatives impacting staff alertness? Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Nursing Abbreviated Journal Nursing  
  Volume 47 Issue 1 Pages 61-62  
  Keywords Public Safety; Human Health  
  Abstract PATIENT SATISFACTION scores have been in the national spotlight since 2007 when Medicare began to link hospital reimbursement with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores. Patients are asked to respond to this question: “During this hospital stay, how often was the area around your room quiet at night?” (Answer choices: Never, sometimes, usually, and always).1 Many hospitals, including ours, have worked diligently to improve patient satisfaction with quiet-at-night initiatives.

This article describes our quiet-at-night initiatives and concerns that these initiatives were impairing our night-shift staff's alertness. We addressed these concerns by conducting a survey; its results led us to change our initiatives to improve staff wakefulness while maintaining patient satisfaction.
 
  Address Lisa A. Smith is an administrative nursing supervisor at Banner University Medical Center-Phoenix in Phoenix, Ariz. Charles A. Larsen is a director of nursing at Banner Baywood Medical Center and Banner Heart Hospital in Mesa, Ariz. Karen L. Johnson is director of nursing research at Banner Health in Phoenix, Ariz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-4039 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28027137 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1617  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clanton, N.; Gibbons, R.; Garcia, J.; Barber, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study Type Report
  Year 2014 Publication Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance Abbreviated Journal NEEA  
  Volume Issue E14-286 Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting; Planning; Vision  
  Abstract The Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and the City of Seattle partnered to evaluate the future of solid state street lighting in the Pacific Northwest with a two-night demonstration in Seattle's Ballard neighborhood in March 2012. The study evaluates the effectiveness of LED streetlights on nighttime driver object detection visibility as function of light source spectral distribution (color temperature in degrees K) and light distribution. Clanton & Associates and VTTI also evaluated adaptive lighting (tuning of streetlights during periods of reduced vehicular and pedestrian activity) at three levels: one hundred percent of full light output, fifty percent of full light output, and twenty-five percent of full light output. The study, led by Clanton & Associates, Continuum Industries, and the VTTI, built upon previous visual performance studies conducted in Anchorage, Alaska; San Diego, California; and San Jose, California. The use of LED technology for city street lighting is becoming more widespread. While these lights are primarily touted for their energy efficiency, the combination of LEDs with advanced control technology, changes to lighting criteria, and a better understanding of human mesopic (low light level) visibility creates an enormous potential for energy savings and improved motorist and pedestrian visibility and safety. Data from these tests support the following statements: LED luminaires with a correlated color temperature of 4100K provide the highest detection distance, including statistically significantly better detection distance when compared to HPS luminaires of higher wattage. The non-uniformity of the lighting on the roadway surface provides a visibility enhancement and greater contrast for visibility. Contrast of objects, both positive and negative, is a better indicator of visibility than is average luminance level. Dimming the LED luminaires to fifty percent of IES RP-8 levels did not significantly reduce object detection distance in dry pavement conditions. Participants perceived dimming of sidewalks as less acceptable than dimming to the same level on the roadway. Asymmetric lighting did reduce glare and performed similarly to the symmetric lighting at the same color temperature (4100K).  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1763  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788  
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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street Lighting and Public Safety: New Nighttime Lighting Documentation Method Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication ARCC Conference Repository Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; Lighting  
  Abstract While the rapid transition of street lighting technologies is occurring across the country for its promising benefits of high energy efficiency, higher intensity, long lamp life, and low maintenance, there is a lack of understanding on the impacts from street lighting’s physical characteristics on public safety. Nighttime lighting and its impact on the incidence of crime and roadway accidents has been investigated since the 1960s in the United States and the United Kingdom. However, prior research has not presented any scientific evidence such as quantified lighting characteristic data and its impacts on public safety because they relied on subjective survey inputs or over-simplified quantification of nighttime lighting conditions. To overcome the limitation of previous studies, extensive documentation of street lighting characteristics was conducted in downtown San Antonio, Texas, which adopts both conventional and new street lighting technologies. Two different sets of light level data were collected on roadways in order to measure the amount of light falling on the ground and on drivers’ eyes inside a car. Correlated color temperature and a color rendering index of nighttime lighting were recorded. The collected lighting data was mapped in a Geographic Information Systems database in order to spatially analyze lighting characteristics. The paper first highlights the potential issues with lighting analysis in previous studies. Next, the proposed research methodology to address these issues for both data collection and spatial analyses is explained. Finally, the preliminary documentation and analysis of street lighting characteristics are presented.  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2103  
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Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.  
  Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language (up) English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160  
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