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Author Sullivan, J.M.; Flannagan, M.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Determining the potential safety benefit of improved lighting in three pedestrian crash scenarios Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 39 Issue 3 Pages 638-647  
  Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Darkness/*adverse effects; *Environment Design; Humans; Lighting/*standards; Prevalence; Risk; *Safety; Time; *Visual Perception; *Walking  
  Abstract The influence of light level was determined for three pedestrian crash scenarios associated with three adaptive headlighting solutions-curve lighting, motorway lighting, and cornering light. These results were coupled to corresponding prevalence data for each scenario to derive measures of annual lifesaving potential. For each scenario, the risk associated with light level was determined using daylight saving time (DST) transitions to produce a dark/light interval risk ratio; prevalence was determined using the corresponding annual crash rate in darkness for each scenario. For curve lighting, pedestrian crashes on curved roadways were examined; for motorway lighting, crashes associated with high speed roadways were examined; and for cornering light, crashes involving turning vehicles at intersections were examined. In the curve analysis, lower dark/light crash ratios were observed for curved sections of roadway compared to straight roads. In the motorway analysis, posted speed limit was the dominant predictor of this ratio for the fatal crash dataset; road function class was the dominant predictor of the ratio for the fatal/nonfatal dataset. Finally, in the intersection crash analysis, the dark/light ratio for turning vehicles was lower than for nonturning vehicles; and the ratio at intersections was lower than at non-intersections. Relative safety need was determined by combining the dark/light ratio with prevalence data to produce an idealized measure of lifesaving potential. While all three scenarios suggested a potential for safety improvement, scenarios related to high speed roadway environments showed the greatest potential.  
  Address The University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, 2901 Baxter Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2150, USA. jsully@umich.edu <jsully@umich.edu>  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:17126278 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 648  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780  
  Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology  
  Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.  
  Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:18760107 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 643  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting: an analysis based on Dutch accident statistics 1987-2006 Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 41 Issue 1 Pages 123-128  
  Keywords Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; Automobile Driving/*statistics & numerical data; Confidence Intervals; Cross-Sectional Studies; Humans; *Lighting; Netherlands; Odds Ratio; Risk Factors; Safety; *Visual Fields  
  Abstract This study estimates the safety effect of road lighting on accidents in darkness on Dutch roads, using data from an interactive database containing 763,000 injury accidents and 3.3 million property damage accidents covering the period 1987-2006. Two estimators of effect are used, and the results are combined by applying techniques of meta-analysis. Injury accidents are reduced by 50%. This effect is larger than the effects found in most of the earlier studies. The effect on fatal accidents is slightly larger than the effect on injury accidents. The effect during twilight is about 2/3 of the effect in darkness. The effect of road lighting is significantly smaller during adverse weather and road surface conditions than during fine conditions. The effects on pedestrian, bicycle and moped accidents are significantly larger than the effects on automobile and motorcycle accidents. The risk of injury accidents was found to increase in darkness. The average increase in risk was estimated to 17% on lit rural roads and 145% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk during rainy conditions is about 50% on lit rural roads and about 190% on unlit rural roads. The average increase in risk with respect to pedestrian accidents is about 140% on lit rural roads and about 360% on unlit rural roads.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, 4808 Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:19114146 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 250  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:19452370 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 627  
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