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Author Schröter-Schlaack, C.; Schulte-Römer, N.; Revermann, C. url  openurl
  Title Lichtverschmutzung – Ausmaß, gesellschaftliche und ökologische Auswirkungen sowie Handlungsansätze Type Report
  Year 2020 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 186 Issue Pages 1-200  
  Keywords Review; Skyglow; Ecology; Human Health; Lighting; Public Safety; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Künstliches Licht kann als eine der größten technischen Errungenschaften der Menschheit angesehen werden, die erhebliche Veränderungen bzw. Fortschritte der Arbeits- und Lebensweisen ermöglichen. Mit künstlicher Beleuchtung wird aber auch der natürliche Rhythmus von Tag und Nacht verändert und damit das Gesamtgefüge des Naturhaushaltes und der Nachtlandschaft transformiert. Ein natürlich dunkler Nachthimmel ist in Deutschland selten geworden. Licht-glocken über urbanen Gebieten sind weit weg von ihrem Entstehungsort in unbeleuchteten Gebieten noch sichtbar und lassen Sterne und die Milchstraße unkenntlich werden. Nicht nur das direkte elektrische Licht erleuchtet unsere Umwelt, sondern auch der nach oben abgestrahlte und reflektierte Teil des Lichts. Schichten der Atmosphäre, Staub oder Wassertropfen reflektieren und streuen das Licht. Dieser auch als Skyglow bezeichnete Effekt bewirkt eine zusätzliche Erhellung. Neben dieser künstlich erhöhten Himmelshelligkeit kann Licht auch die direkte Umgebung ungewollt aufhellen oder durch Blendung das Sehen einschränken. Licht ist ein wichtiger externer Zeitgeber für die innere Uhr der Lebewesen, an dessen natürlichen Rhythmus sich Menschen, Tiere und Pflanzen über Jahrhunderte angepasst haben. So wird vermutet, dass die permanent und periodisch veränderten Lichtverhältnisse durch zunehmende künstliche Beleuchtung negative Auswirkungen auf die menschliche Gesundheit haben und ebenso zu ökologischen Beeinträchtigungen führen.All diese nichtintendierten Wirkungen der künstlichen Beleuchtung werden unter dem Sammelbegriff Lichtverschmutzung verstanden. Lichtverschmutzung ist hier definiert als unerwünschte Wirkung künstlicher Beleuchtung im Außenbereich, also das Licht, das räumlich (Richtung und Fläche), zeitlich (Tages- und Jahreszeit, Dauer, Periodizität) oder in der Intensität oder spektralen Zusammensetzung (z.B. Ultraviolett- oder Blauanteil) über den reinen Beleuchtungszweck hinaus nicht beabsichtigte Auswirkungen hat (Kuechly et al. 2018). Mit dem vorliegenden Bericht werden der wissenschaftliche Erkenntnis-stand im Hinblick auf Umfang und Trends der Lichtverschmutzung sowie ihre wirtschaftlichen und soziokulturellen, humanmedizinischen und ökologischen Wirkungen zusammengefasst. Auf Basis dieser Erkenntnisse und aktueller beleuchtungstechnologischer und lichtplanerischer Möglichkeiten werden Handlungsoptionen abgeleitet, die eine Verringerung der Lichtverschmutzung bei gleichzeitiger Berücksichtigung der nutzbringenden Ziele der Beleuchtung unterstützen können.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Büro für Technikfolgen-Abschätzung beim Deutschen Bundestag (TAB) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language German Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3058  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Liu, L.; Zhou, H.; Lan, M.; Wang, Z. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Linking Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery to urban crime Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Applied Geography Abbreviated Journal Applied Geography  
  Volume 125 Issue Pages 102267  
  Keywords Public Safety; Remote Sensing  
  Abstract Various environmental criminology theories and empirical studies have linked the urban environment to crime. The crime pattern theory, in particular, argues that edges, either social or physical, affect crime. A recent study has combined both social and physical edges to derive composite edges. A composite edge index measured by NPP-VIIRS satellite nightlights at the census tract level is found to be related to street robbery and burglary. Nightlight images of Luojia 1-01, launched in June 2018, have a much higher spatial resolution than that of NPP-VIIRS. This study applies Luojia 1-01 nightlight data to measure composite edges by nightlight gradients at the smaller census block group level. The effects of the composite edges on street robbery and burglary are explored by negative binomial models. Results show that composite edges measured by Luojia 1-01 nightlight data improve the fitness of models noticeably on street robbery but not on burglary. Nightlight gradients make a statistically significant and positive impact on the street robbery rate, but an insignificant and negative impact on the burglary rate. Furthermore, the composite edge effect on street robbery is more substantial than that on burglary. In sum, this study provides evidence that Luojia 1-01 nightlight imagery can help explain crime at the aggregated block group level, but its impact on crime varies by crime type.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0143-6228 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3112  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Shang, H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Study on the Influence of Port Coastal Light Pollution on Visual Navigation Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Journal of Coastal Research Abbreviated Journal Journal of Coastal Research  
  Volume 115 Issue sp1 Pages 250  
  Keywords Safety; Vision  
  Abstract Navigation aids are navigation aids for the safety of ships. They are divided into three categories: visual navigation aids, audio navigation aids and radio navigation aids. It provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for water transportation, fishery, marine development and national defense construction, and provides reliable navigation safety guarantee for the establishment of safe economic passage at sea and inside sea, which is an important part of the maritime Silk Road. Visual navigation aids are the most basic navigation aids, sound navigation aids only play a warning role, radio navigation aids have developed into a modern all-weather navigation aids system, especially the popularization of satellite navigation technology, put forward higher requirements for visual navigation aids.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-0208 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3119  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Metan S. S.; Kshirsagar A. R.; Samleti G. N.; Patki V. K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Anti-Glare Headlamp a Safe Option for Better Vision to the Rider Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication International Journal of Innovative Technology and Exploring Engineering Abbreviated Journal IJITEE  
  Volume 8 Issue 9S2 Pages 672-678  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract As per the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways report 2018, every day around 410 road fatalities in India, which is one of the highest road crash fatalities in the world. Evaluations show that an average of 1% of nighttime fatal crash lists glare as a major contributor factor. On the multilane highway, vehicle with high glared headlamp light disturbs the approaching motorist eyes due to which the vision of the motorist gets indistinct for a few seconds causing accidents on the road.

In the present work, a novel concept of an anti-glare headlamp is proposed to avoid the temporary blindness of the motorist due to momentary high glares from approaching vehicles. The anti- glare film reduces glare and halos around headlamp light at night and eliminates unattractive reflections on the eyes. A successful attempt is made to analyze the visibility of objects in a scene by inspecting contrast reduction caused by the illuminance contribution. Our visualization of scenes with the cover-up veiling illuminance gives a good indication of the visual problems that might occur, but the images are not exactly what people perceive when observing the scene in reality.

In the present study, after number of samples, it has found that that the mixture of yellow and green color film combination on halogen bulb headlamp will give a good vision to the rider as well as glare-free effect to the approaching motorist. Visualizations with the proposed method can still improve the understanding of human vision so that visual aspects can be taken into account in design and quality assurance of head lamp.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2278-3075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3162  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Marchant, Paul url  openurl
  Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20  
  Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions  
  Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research  
  Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) A corrected appendix to this paper is available on page 50 of: http://worldtransportjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/26.3-final.pdf. Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862  
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