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Author Marchant, Paul url  openurl
  Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20  
  Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions  
  Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research  
  Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (down) World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author van Schalkwyk, I.; Venkataraman, N.; Shankar, V.; Milton, J.; Bailey, T.; Calais, K. url  openurl
  Title Evaluation of the Safety Performance of Continuous Mainline Roadway Lighting on Freeway Segments in Washington State Type Report
  Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety; traffic; traffic safety; road safety; continuous roadway lighting; Washington; United States  
  Abstract Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) evaluated continuous roadway lighting on mainline freeway segments in Washington State. An extensive literature review on the safety performance of roadway lighting was completed. As part of this research effort WSDOT developed multivariate random parameter (RP) models with specific lighting variables for continuous lighting on mainline freeway segments. Roadway lighting is often used as a countermeasure to address nighttime crashes and this research evaluates common assumption related to roadway lighting. The models developed for this research use crashes from the end of civil dusk twilight to the start of civil dawn twilight since lighting systems are of limited value outside these timeframes. Natural light conditions were estimated for crashes based on location and time of the crash event. Based on the RP results, the research team concludes that the contribution of continuous illumination to nighttime crash reduction is negligible. In addition to the findings on safety performance, a pilot LED project on US101 demonstrated that LED roadway lighting can significantly increase energy efficiency and environmental stewardship (e.g., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) while maintaining safety performance outcomes. The research team recommended modification to WSDOT design policy, including removal of the requirement of continuous mainline lighting and reduction of lighting where segment specific analysis indicates appropriate.  
  Address Washington State Department of Transportation 310 Maple Park Ave SE, Olympia, WA, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (down) Washington State Department of Transportation Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title WSDOT Research Report Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1427  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety  
  Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.  
  Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (down) Self-published Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impressions of Lighting in Public Squares After Dark Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Environment & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Env. & Behav.  
  Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 227-254  
  Keywords Psychology; public lighting; public safety; security; crime; perception; outdoor lighting  
  Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public squares. Following studies on office interior lighting, the present research manipulated three modes of lighting—non-uniform–uniform, peripheral–overhead, and dim–bright—in three virtual squares. One study had 32 participants (15 men, 17 women) judge the spaciousness and privacy of each of the 24 public squares. A second study had a different group of 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) rate the appeal, safety from crime, and excitement of each square. Study 1 found that judged spaciousness increased with uniform and bright lighting, and that privacy increased with non-uniform, dim, and peripheral lighting. Study 2 found that rated appeal increased with uniform and bright lighting, as did safety from crime and excitement. Across the two studies, the uniform and bright lighting conditions contributed most to the kinds of favorable experiences people might expect to have in public spaces after dark.  
  Address City & Regional Planning, Ohio State University, 200 Knowlton Hall 275 W Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Email: nasar.1(at)osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (down) SAGE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1390  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jägerbrand, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New Framework of Sustainable Indicators for Outdoor LED (Light Emitting Diodes) Lighting and SSL (Solid State Lighting) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages 1028-1063  
  Keywords Conservation; sustainable development; exterior; ecological; environmental; economic; impact; light pollution; safety; visibility; social  
  Abstract Light emitting diodes (LEDs) and SSL (solid state lighting) are relatively new light sources, but are already widely applied for outdoor lighting. Despite this, there is little available information allowing planners and designers to evaluate and weigh different sustainability aspects of LED/SSL lighting when making decisions. Based on a literature review, this paper proposes a framework of sustainability indicators and/or measures that can be used for a general evaluation or to highlight certain objectives or aspects of special interest when choosing LED/SSL lighting. LED/SSL lighting is reviewed from a conventional sustainable development perspective, i.e., covering the three dimensions, including ecological, economic and social sustainability. The new framework of sustainable indicators allow prioritization when choosing LED/SSL products and can thereby help ensure that short-term decisions on LED/SSL lighting systems are in line with long-term sustainability goals established in society. The new framework can also be a beneficial tool for planners, decision-makers, developers and lighting designers, or for consumers wishing to use LED/SSL lighting in a sustainable manner. Moreover, since some aspects of LED/SSL lighting have not yet been thoroughly studied or developed, some possible future indicators are suggested.  
  Address The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Box 55685, SE-102 15 Stockholm, Sweden; E-Mail: annika.jagerbrand@vti.se; Tel.: +46-(0)-13-204219; Fax: +46-(0)-13-141436  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (down) MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Enlgish Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1095  
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