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Author Monsere, C.M.; Fischer, E.L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Safety effects of reducing freeway illumination for energy conservation Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 40 Issue 5 Pages 1773-1780  
  Keywords Lighting; Accidents, Traffic/*statistics & numerical data; *Automobile Driving; *Conservation of Energy Resources; Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Models, Statistical; Oregon; Safety; Wounds and Injuries/epidemiology  
  Abstract The addition of illumination where none was present is generally believed to have a positive effect on motor vehicle safety; reducing the frequency, as well as the severity of crashes. The operational cost of illumination, however, can make it a candidate for conservation during periods of high energy costs. In response to a forecasted energy shortage, the Oregon Department of Transportation selectively reduced illumination on interstate highways as part of an energy-saving effort. The reductions occurred at 44 interchanges and along 5.5 miles of interstate highway. This paper presents the results of a crash-based analysis of the changes in safety performance using an empirical-Bayes observational methodology. The study found an increase in reported crashes where the lineal lighting was reduced both in total crashes (28.95%, P=0.05) and injury night crashes (39.21%, P=0.07). Where full interchange lighting was reduced to partial lighting, a 2.46% increase (P=0.007) in total night crashes was observed. Injury night crashes, however, decreased by 12.16% (P<0.001) though day injury crashes also decreased at these locations. Unexpectedly, for interchanges where illumination was reduced from partial plus to partial, a 35.24% decrease (P<0.001) in total crashes and 39.98 (P<0.001) decrease in injury night crashes was found, though again, day crashes also decreased.  
  Address Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Portland State University, P.O. Box 751, Portland, OR 97207-0751, USA. monsere@pdx.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18760107 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 643  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Jackett, M.; Frith, W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety -- A New Zealand Study Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication IATSS Research Abbreviated Journal IATSS Research  
  Volume 36 Issue 2 Pages 139-145  
  Keywords Lighting; roadway lighting; road safety; traffic safety; public safety  
  Abstract It is well known from the literature that road lighting has significant safety benefits. The NZTA Economic Evaluation Manual (EEM) quotes a 35% reduction in crashes as the effect of upgrading or improving lighting where lighting is poor.

However, no well-established dose–response relationship to lighting parameters exists from which one can deduce benchmark levels of lighting for safety.

This study looked at a sample of street lighting installations spread over the urban areas of nine territorial local authorities. Standard street lighting parameters were measured in the field using a variety of instruments including illuminance meter, luminance meter and digital camera. Field measurements were related to the ratio of night-time to day time crashes as a measure of night time safety vis-a-vis daytime safety.

A statistically significant dose–response relationship was found between average road luminance and safety across all traffic volume groups, with an indication that the relationship may be stronger where more serious crashes are involved.

Threshold increment was also a significant variable but not so longitudinal uniformity or overall uniformity.

The results related to luminance will allow practitioners to better estimate the safety benefits of different levels of lighting resulting in better targeting of expenditure.
 
  Address Jackett Consulting, Lower Hutt, New Zealand; jackett(at)paradise.net.nz  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0386-1112 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 638  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bullough, J.D.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title To illuminate or not to illuminate: roadway lighting as it affects traffic safety at intersections Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 53 Issue Pages 65-77  
  Keywords Lighting; Accident Prevention/*methods; Accidents, Traffic/*prevention & control/psychology/statistics & numerical data; Cross-Sectional Studies; *Environment Design; Humans; *Lighting; Minnesota; Models, Statistical; Photoperiod; Psychomotor Performance; Regression Analysis; Safety/statistics & numerical data; Visual Perception  
  Abstract A two-pronged effort to quantify the impact of lighting on traffic safety is presented. In the statistical approach, the effects of lighting on crash frequency for different intersection types in Minnesota were assessed using count regression models. The models included many geometric and traffic control variables to estimate the association between lighting and nighttime and daytime crashes and the resulting night-to-day crash ratios. Overall, the presence of roadway intersection lighting was found to be associated with an approximately 12% lower night-to-day crash ratio than unlighted intersections. In the parallel analytical approach, visual performance analyses based on roadway intersection lighting practices in Minnesota were made for the same intersection types investigated in the statistical approach. The results of both approaches were convergent, suggesting that visual performance improvements from roadway lighting could serve as input for predicting improvements in crash frequency. A provisional transfer function allows transportation engineers to evaluate alternative lighting systems in the design phase so selections based on expected benefits and costs can be made.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23377085 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial (down) 627  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ramsay, M.; Newton, R. url  openurl
  Title THE EFFECT OF BETTER STREET LIGHTING ON CRIME AND FEAR: A REVIEW Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Crime prevention unit paper No. 29, London Home Office Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 455  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Atkins, S.; Husain, S.; Storey, A. url  openurl
  Title The Influence of Street Lighting on Crime and Fear of Crime". Type Journal Article
  Year 1991 Publication Crime prevention unit paper No. 28, London Home Office Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 454  
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