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Author Morrow, E.N.; Hutton, S.A. url  openurl
  Title The Chicago Alley Lighting Project: Final Evaluation Report Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Begun in October of 1998, the first part of the plan sought to upgrade and improve the city's 175,000 streetlights, which illuminate the arterial and residential streets. The second part of the plan involved repairing and upgrading the lighting in and around viaducts and Chicago Transit Authority stations. The final part of the plan has been to boost lighting levels in alleys across the city as a tool for public safety and fighting crime. In the past, 90-watt lights illuminated most city alleys; alley lighting levels have been increased by installing new fixtures that can accommodate 250-watt bulbs. The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority undertook an evaluation to assess the impact of increased alley lighting on crime rates in two eight-square-block areas, with emphasis on crimes that were most likely to have occurred in alleys. The evaluation first examined change in the experimental area that received increased alley lighting over a 1-year period prior to increased alley lighting and a 1-year period thereafter. Next, change over a 6-month period before and after increased alley lighting was examined for both the experimental area and the control area. The evaluation found that reported offenses increased between the 1-year preinstallation and 1-year postinstallation study period in the experimental area where alley lighting was improved. The evaluation also found that the experimental area experienced more notable increases in reported incidents over a 6-month preinstallation and 6-month postinstallation study period compared to the control area. The evaluation could not provide a definitive explanation of these findings.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 453  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Investigating whether a crime reduction measure works Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 91 Issue Pages  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime is a serious business. It causes great distress and fear. It costs a lot

to deal with its consequences. In these regards crime shares much with

the problem of ill-health and disease. The application of sound science and

statistics has allowed great strides to be made in dealing with problems of

ill health. Medical statistics is one of the recognised, established

disciplines involved in researching healthcare.

The parallels between research in crime reduction and in healthcare do

appear to differ in terms of quality. Although there is still room for

considerable improvement in researching health-care, an investigation

into the underpinning of statistical methods used indicates that the

problems are substantially worse in the study of crime. The consideration

given to statistics in crime studies seems rather flimsy, yet important

claims are made which are statistical at source and may affect policy, and

so can have considerable costs attached. Therefore, for example, it is

important to know whether the underlying crime level has really changed,

rather than just being the result of perhaps sampling variation or some

artefact giving rise to statistical bias or systematic error. This is necessary

when trying to determine whether a Crime Reduction Intervention (CRI)

has actually worked.

I started examining the scientific basis of the claim for the effectiveness for

one particular CRI, basically because I was concerned about negative side

effects and I thought the claim implausible. I remain concerned and

unconvinced. The statistical issues and concerns I raise apply also to

investigating other CRIs and to existing published analyses.

This piece extends work presented in Marchant (2006); earlier work on the

statistical issues involved can be found in Marchant (2005a, b; 2004).
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 452  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title What is the contribution of street lighting to keeping us safe? An investigation into a policy. Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 102 Pages 32-42  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Lighting of roads is said to be of benefit beyond giving the ability to be

able to see in the dark. It is claimed for example that lighting reduces

crime and traffic accidents by a considerable amount and it is

therefore necessary to have it for these reasons. My view remains that

this claim lacks evidence of a sufficiently high standard to warrant

using public safety as an argument. On the other hand there are

reasons why having a lot of light at night might be a bad thing. This

work continues a previous talk and article for Radical Statistics

(Marchant 2006)

My initial interest in this area was sparked through my interest in

astronomy because light pollution makes it hard to appreciate the

wonders of the night sky. It seemed to me that the belief that lighting

reduces crime was questionable…. I then embarked on investigating

the crime reduction claim and found it suspect, as detailed in the

2006 Radical Statistics article. (See also Marchant 2004, 2005, 2007,

2009)
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 450  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Have new street lighting schemes reduced crime in London? Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Radical Statistics Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 104 Pages 39-48  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Crime counts published by the Home Office for the Metropolitan Police

Crime and Disorder Reduction Partnership areas have been collated

across the years 2003-2009. The crime counts over time have been

modelled taking into account the ‘multilevel’ (years within areas)

nature of the data. The key variable of interest, as a predictor of

within-area change of crime, is the proportion of a Core Investment

Period of new Private Finance Initiative street lighting which had been

completed up to the given time point as a predictor of within area

change of crime. The final model gave a 95% confidence interval for

the multiplier by which the number of crimes is increased of (0.87,

1.11), for a fully implemented lighting programme, consistent with

zero effect.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial (down) 449  
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Author Lin, Y.; Liu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Zhu, X.; Lai, J.; Heynderickx, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Model predicting discomfort glare caused by LED road lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Optics Express Abbreviated Journal Opt. Express  
  Volume 22 Issue 15 Pages 18056  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; glare; road safety; traffic  
  Abstract To model discomfort glare from LED road lighting, the effect of four key variables on perceived glare was explored. These variables were: the average glare source luminance (Lg), the background luminance (Lb), the solid angle of the glare source from the perspective of the viewer; and the angle between the glare source and the line of sight. Based on these four variables 72 different light conditions were simulated in a scaled experimental set-up. Participants were requested to judge the perceived discomfort glare of these light conditions using the deBoer rating scale. All four variables and some of their interactions had indeed a significant effect on the deBoer rating. Based on these findings, we developed a model, and tested its general applicability in various verification experiments, including laboratory conditions as well as real road conditions. This verification proved the validity of the model with a correlation between measured and predicted values as high as 0.87 and a residual deviation of about 1 unit on the deBoer rating scale. These results filled the gap in estimating discomfort glare of LED road lighting and clarified similarities of and differences in discomfort glare between LED and traditional light sources.  
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  ISSN 1094-4087 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 351  
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