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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors  
  Volume 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330  
  Keywords Public Safety; Vision  
  Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wood, J.M.; Isoardi, G.; Black, A.; Cowling, I. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time driving visibility associated with LED streetlight dimming Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 121 Issue Pages 295-300  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract New LED streetlighting designs and dimming are being introduced worldwide, however, while their cost savings are well established, their impact on driving performance has received little attention. This study investigated the effect of streetlight dimming on night-time driving performance. Participants included 14 licensed drivers (mean age 34.2 +/- 4.9 years, range 27-40 years) who drove an instrumented vehicle around a closed circuit at night. Six LED streetlights were positioned along a 250 m, straight section and their light output varied between laps (dimming levels of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of maximum output; L25, L50, L75 and L100 respectively; at 100% average road surface luminance of 1.14 cd/m(2)). Driving tasks involved recognition distances and reaction times to a low contrast, moving target and a pedestrian walking at the roadside. Participants drove at an average driving speed of 55 km/hr in the streetlight zone. Streetlight dimming significantly delayed driver reaction times to the moving target (F3,13.06 = 6.404; p = 0.007); with an average 0.4 s delay in reaction times under L25 compared to L100, (estimated reduction in recognition distances of 6 m). Pedestrian recognition distances were significantly shorter under dimmed streetlight levels (F3,12.75 = 8.27; p = 0.003); average pedestrian recognition distances were 15 m shorter under L25 compared to L100, and 11 m shorter under L50 compared to L100. These data suggest that streetlight dimming impacts on driver visibility but it is unclear how these differences impact on safety; future studies are required to inform decisions on safe dimming levels for road networks.  
  Address School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30317014 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2160  
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Author Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics  
  Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232  
  Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society  
  Abstract Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New nighttime roadway lighting documentation applied to public safety at night: A case study in San Antonio, Texas Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society  
  Volume 46 Issue Pages 101459  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security; Planning  
  Abstract Built environment and public safety professionals view street lighting as an important factor in improving the well-being of the community at night. Extant research that has examined the relationship between street lighting and public safety has found inconclusive or mixed results and has called for more extensive lighting metrics. Using new lighting measurement technologies and geographic information science, this study builds on previous work to demonstrate new metrics to consider when evaluating public safety, specifically crime and traffic accidents. Downtown San Antonio, Texas is used as a case study to explore illuminance levels on roadways and the driver’s eye, and how these metrics can be used to understand the lighting characteristics of where crime and traffic accidents occur. The findings indicate that the central downtown district in San Antonio has higher illuminance levels than the existing roadway lighting guidelines while the residential downtown neighborhoods have insufficient light levels. Statistical analysis reveals that roadway illuminance levels are higher in areas where no crime occurred and driver’s eye illuminance levels are lower in areas with no traffic accidents. The findings prove the usefulness of new lighting documentation techniques and support the importance of considering illuminance metrics when assessing crime and traffic accidents at night.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2191  
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Author Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Valenzuela-Martínez, M.; Lardelli-Claret, P.; Molina-Soberanes, D.; Moreno-Roldán, E.; Jiménez-Mejías, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Factors related to the risk of pedestrian fatality after a crash in Spain, 1993–2013 Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Journal of Transport & Health Abbreviated Journal Journal of Transport & Health  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Public Safety  
  Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to quantify the magnitude of association between pedestrian fatalities during the first 24 h after a crash and pedestrian-, driver-, vehicle- and environment-related characteristics in Spain from 1993 to 2013.

Methods

Data were analyzed for all 203,622 traffic crashes involving a pedestrian and a motor vehicle recorded in the Spanish Registry of Road Crashes with Victims. After multiple imputation for missing values, crude (CMRR) and adjusted mortality rate ratios (AMRR) were obtained for each variable with Poisson regression models.

Results

Pedestrian risk of death after a crash increased nearly exponentially with pedestrian age. Male sex, committing an infraction and having a physical defect were also associated with a higher risk of death (AMRR 1.27, 95%CI 1.17–1.37 for physical defect). Regarding driver-related factors associated with pedestrian fatalities, visual defects (AMRR 1.21, 95%CI 1.08–1.37) and the commission of a speed infraction (AMRR 2.59, 95%CI 2.43–2.76) increased the risk. Heavy vehicles (trucks, vans, buses) and the presence of passengers were also associated with a higher risk of pedestrian death. The risk of pedestrian death was lower for crashes that occurred between 12:00 and 14:00, in good light conditions, at intersections, and when the pedestrian was on a sidewalk. Risk was higher in crashes in rural areas with fewer than 5000 inhabitants.

Conclusions

We identified several factors strongly associated with the risk of pedestrian fatality; some of these factors are analyzed here for the first time. This knowledge is potentially useful in the design and prioritization of measures intended to increase pedestrian safety.
 
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  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2214-1405 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2236  
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