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Author Bullough, J.D.; Skinner, N.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Real-World Demonstrations of Novel Pedestrian Crosswalk Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board  
  Volume 2661 Issue Pages 62-68  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning  
  Abstract Outdoor urban pedestrian lighting serves multiple purposes and should do so in the most efficient and economic manner. An important purpose of outdoor urban pedestrian lighting is to support the safety of pedestrians, particularly those who interact with adjacent vehicle traffic, while enhancing pedestrians’ perceptions of personal safety and security. A review of published literature, as well as the demonstration activities summarized, indicates the potential for bollard-level crosswalk lighting to enhance pedestrian visibility and to improve safety at crosswalks, particularly at locations where the presence of a crosswalk might not be expected by approaching drivers. Such locations include midblock crossings, roundabouts, and locations near schools and other public venues that might experience high levels of pedestrian traffic at sporadic or unexpected times.  
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  ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1723  
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Author Haans, A.; van Osch, T.H.J.; de Kort, Y.A.W. url  openurl
  Title Dynamic Road Lighting and Perceived Personal Safety of Pedestrians. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication In Street lighting, stress & safety. 9th Biennial Conference on Environmental Psychology. Eindhoven Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 1  
  Keywords Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1045  
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S. url  openurl
  Title Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Designing for perceived scene brightness Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.  
  Volume 47 Issue 8 Pages 909-919  
  Keywords Public Safety; outdoor lighting; photopic; photopic illuminance; human vision; metrics; task lighting; parking lots  
  Abstract Photopic illuminance is the photometric metric used today for specifying parking lot lighting levels. The photopic luminous efficiency function does not represent the spectral sensitivity of the perceived scene brightness of parking lots. Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation will be seen as brighter for the same photopic illuminance. Moreover, the psychological benefit of providing people with a sense of safety and security in a parking lot is better correlated with the perceived brightness of the parking lot than with its photopic illuminance. Because photopic illuminance is not predictive of the psychological benefit expected from the parking lot lighting system, electric energy will be unnecessarily wasted if specifications are based upon this metric. Specifying parking lot lighting with a benefit metric based upon perceived scene brightness could reduce electric power requirements as well as the amount of radiant energy reflecting from the pavement and escaping into the night sky. A method of equating brightness for different spectral power distributions is provided.  
  Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1074  
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Author Fotios, S.; Yang, B.; Uttley, J. url  openurl
  Title Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technologying Res & Tech  
  Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 548-564  
  Keywords traffic safety; pedestrians; roadway lighting; visibility; light at night  
  Abstract After dark, road lighting should enhance the visual component of pedestrians’ interpersonal judgements such as evaluating the intent of others. Investigation of lighting effects requires better understanding of the nature of this task as expressed by the typical distance at which the judgement is made (and hence visual size) and the duration of observation, which in past studies have been arbitrary. Better understanding will help with interpretation of the significance of lighting characteristics such as illuminance and light spectrum. Conclusions of comfort distance in past studies are not consistent and hence this article presents new data determined using eye-tracking. We propose that further work on interpersonal judgements should examine the effects of lighting at a distance of 15 m with an observation duration of 500 ms.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 309  
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Author Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854  
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