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Author Ditton, J.; Nair, G. openurl 
  Title Throwing Light on Crime: A Case Study of the Relationship between Street Lighting and Crime Prevention Type Journal Article
  Year 1994 Publication Security Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 5 Issue 3 Pages 125–132  
  Keywords Society; Safety  
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  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1030  
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Author Lorenc, T.; Petticrew, M.; Whitehead, M.; Neary, D.; Clayton, S.; Wright, K.; Thomson, H.; Cummins, S.; Sowden, A.; Renton, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Systematic Reviews Abbreviated Journal Syst Rev  
  Volume (down) 2 Issue Pages 30  
  Keywords *Crime; *Environment Design; *Fear; Humans; Milieu Therapy/*standards; *Public Health; *Safety  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Fear of crime is associated with negative health and wellbeing outcomes, and may mediate some impacts of the built environment on public health. A range of environmental interventions have been hypothesized to reduce the fear of crime. METHODS: This review aimed to synthesize the literature on the effectiveness of interventions in the built environment to reduce the fear of crime. Systematic review methodology, following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidance, was used. Studies of environmental interventions which reported a fear of crime outcome and used any prospective evaluation design (randomized controlled trial (RCT), trial or uncontrolled before-and-after study) were included. Eighteen databases were searched. The Hamilton tool was used to assess quality. A narrative synthesis of findings was undertaken. RESULTS: A total of 47 studies were included, 22 controlled and 25 uncontrolled, with total sample sizes ranging from n = 52 to approximately n = 23,000. Thirty-six studies were conducted in the UK, ten studies in the USA and one study in the Netherlands. The quality of the evidence overall is low. There are some indications that home security improvements and non-crime-related environmental improvements may be effective for some fear of crime outcomes. There is little evidence that the following reduce fear of crime: street lighting improvements, closed-circuit television (CCTV), multi-component environmental crime prevention programs or regeneration programs. CONCLUSIONS: There is some evidence for the effectiveness of specific environmental interventions in reducing some indicators of fear of crime, but more attention to the context and possible confounders is needed in future evaluations of complex social interventions such as these.  
  Address Department of Social and Environmental Health Research, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, 5-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK. theo.lorenc@lshtm.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2046-4053 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23663285; PMCID:PMC3660218 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 251  
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Author Marchant, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating area-wide crime-reduction measures Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Significance Abbreviated Journal Significance  
  Volume (down) 2 Issue 2 Pages 62-65  
  Keywords lighting; crime; safety  
  Abstract When we look around an imperfect world, we feel an understandable impulse to improve matters. We may therefore decide to intervene by prescribing medical treatment or by introducing crime reduction measures. But how do we know that what we do is likely to work? In medicine the standard answer is to do a trial; not surprisingly the same is true in crime reduction. But, says Paul Marchant, the lessons learned from medical trials have not been implemented in the latter field.  
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  ISSN 1740-9705 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 253  
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Author Flannagan, M.J.; Sivak, M.; Traube, E.C.; Kojima, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of Overall Low-Beam Intensity on Seeing Distance in the Presence of Glare Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Transportation Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Transportation Human Factors  
  Volume (down) 2 Issue 4 Pages 313-330  
  Keywords Public Safety; Vision  
  Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated that current low-beam headlamps do not provide adequate seeing distance for safety. Could this situation be improved by providing more total light from low-beam headlamps, leaving the relative distribution of light unchanged? Although such a proposal is probably not the best practical solution, it is important to consider some of the visual consequences of a general increase in light to analyze the overall problem of low-beam headlighting.

In a nighttime field study we measured seeing distance in the presence of glare as a function of headlamp intensity, always varying the intensity of the seeing light and glare light by the same proportion. Increasing intensity by a factor of about 3.8 increased seeing distance by about 17% for both young and old drivers. This result is consistent with predictions from quantitative vision modeling using veiling luminance to represent the disabling effects of glare. We also collected subjective estimates of discomfort glare and found, as expected, that the higher intensities produced substantially more discomfort.

Our findings suggest that, if objective visual performance is the only criterion, there is no clear upper limit to how intense low-beam headlamps should be. However, there may be a level at which people simply will not tolerate the subjectively discomforting effects of glare, or at which glare indirectly affects objective performance through its effects on subjective comfort. Because subjective discomfort, rather than objective visual performance, may be the limiting consideration for setting maximum glare levels, more research should be done to understand the nature and consequences of discomfort glare, including possible effects of subjective comfort on objective visual behavior.
 
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  ISSN 1093-9741 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2127  
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Author Gupta, N.; Lata, H.; Kaur, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of glare on night time driving in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic professional drivers Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication International Journal of Applied & Basic Medical Research Abbreviated Journal Int J Appl Basic Med Res  
  Volume (down) 2 Issue 2 Pages 128-131  
  Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Glare; Alcohol; driving; glare recovery  
  Abstract CONTEXT: The use of alcohol during nighttime driving may affect recovery from glare leading to increased traffic accidents. OBJECTIVE: To compare the glare recovery time in alcoholic versus non-alcoholic drivers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Alcoholic (n = 25) and non-alcoholic drivers (n = 25) were subjected to glare recovery test and they also filled a questionnaire about the nighttime driving. RESULTS: The glare recovery time got prolonged in alcoholic drivers and they also complained of more problems during nighttime driving as compared to non-alcoholic drivers. CONCLUSIONS: The use of alcohol delays recovery from glare during nighttime driving. This can have considerable implications for developing countries in improving regulations for driving licensing.  
  Address Department of Physiology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital Ludhiana, Punjab, India  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Kluwer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2229-516X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23776826; PMCID:PMC3678693 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2834  
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