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Author Outen, A. R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The ecological effects of road lighting Type Book Chapter
  Year 2002 Publication In: Sherwood, B.R.; Cutler, D. und Burton, J. (Hrsg.): Wildlife and Roads: The Ecological Impact. London Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) Issue Pages 133-155  
  Keywords Public Safety; Animals; Conservation  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 700  
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Author Saraiji, R,; Oommen, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dominant contrast as a metric for the lighting of pedestrians Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract CIE Publication 115 and ANSI/IESNA Recommended Practice 8-00 both use vertical illuminance 1.5 m above the ground as a design criterion for the lighting of pedestrians. While vertical illuminance has the advantage of being easy to calculate and measure, visibility is based primarily on target contrast. A central question related to the visibility of pedestrians is whether drivers need to see the whole pedestrian or can they infer the presence of a pedestrian by recognizing any part of the pedestrian’s shape. The objective of this work was to first explore various pedestrian contrast profiles that could exist and then to find a simplified approach to characterize pedestrian night-time visibility. The problem was addressed through theoretical analyses and computer simulations. Pedestrian contrast was found to be bipolar and dynamic. From the contrast profiles, we developed the concept of dominant contrast, which is defined as the contrast of any part of the pedestrian that provides the highest visibility. Dominant contrast was examined as a metric for street lighting design and night time visibility for (a) an unlit street with car headlights, (b) a lit street without car headlights and (c) a lit street with car headlights. Dominant contrast was found to be a viable metric for street lighting design and night time visibility studies.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 854  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 1: Little or No Benefit. Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Society; Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1016  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) Issue Pages  
  Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety  
  Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.  
  Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017  
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Author Haans, A.; van Osch, T.H.J.; de Kort, Y.A.W. url  openurl
  Title Dynamic Road Lighting and Perceived Personal Safety of Pedestrians. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication In Street lighting, stress & safety. 9th Biennial Conference on Environmental Psychology. Eindhoven Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) Issue Pages 1  
  Keywords Safety  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1045  
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