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Author Fotios, S.; Yang, B.; Uttley, J.
Title Observing other pedestrians: Investigating the typical distance and duration of fixation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technologying Res & Tech
Volume (up) 47 Issue 5 Pages 548-564
Keywords traffic safety; pedestrians; roadway lighting; visibility; light at night
Abstract After dark, road lighting should enhance the visual component of pedestrians’ interpersonal judgements such as evaluating the intent of others. Investigation of lighting effects requires better understanding of the nature of this task as expressed by the typical distance at which the judgement is made (and hence visual size) and the duration of observation, which in past studies have been arbitrary. Better understanding will help with interpretation of the significance of lighting characteristics such as illuminance and light spectrum. Conclusions of comfort distance in past studies are not consistent and hence this article presents new data determined using eye-tracking. We propose that further work on interpersonal judgements should examine the effects of lighting at a distance of 15 m with an observation duration of 500 ms.
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 309
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S.
Title Spectral considerations for outdoor lighting: Designing for perceived scene brightness Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume (up) 47 Issue 8 Pages 909-919
Keywords Public Safety; outdoor lighting; photopic; photopic illuminance; human vision; metrics; task lighting; parking lots
Abstract Photopic illuminance is the photometric metric used today for specifying parking lot lighting levels. The photopic luminous efficiency function does not represent the spectral sensitivity of the perceived scene brightness of parking lots. Sources with a greater proportion of short-wavelength radiation will be seen as brighter for the same photopic illuminance. Moreover, the psychological benefit of providing people with a sense of safety and security in a parking lot is better correlated with the perceived brightness of the parking lot than with its photopic illuminance. Because photopic illuminance is not predictive of the psychological benefit expected from the parking lot lighting system, electric energy will be unnecessarily wasted if specifications are based upon this metric. Specifying parking lot lighting with a benefit metric based upon perceived scene brightness could reduce electric power requirements as well as the amount of radiant energy reflecting from the pavement and escaping into the night sky. A method of equating brightness for different spectral power distributions is provided.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York, USA
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1074
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Author Smith, L.A.; Larsen, C.A.; Johnson, K.L.
Title Are “quiet-at-night” initiatives impacting staff alertness? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Nursing Abbreviated Journal Nursing
Volume (up) 47 Issue 1 Pages 61-62
Keywords Public Safety; Human Health
Abstract PATIENT SATISFACTION scores have been in the national spotlight since 2007 when Medicare began to link hospital reimbursement with Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) scores. Patients are asked to respond to this question: “During this hospital stay, how often was the area around your room quiet at night?” (Answer choices: Never, sometimes, usually, and always).1 Many hospitals, including ours, have worked diligently to improve patient satisfaction with quiet-at-night initiatives.

This article describes our quiet-at-night initiatives and concerns that these initiatives were impairing our night-shift staff's alertness. We addressed these concerns by conducting a survey; its results led us to change our initiatives to improve staff wakefulness while maintaining patient satisfaction.
Address Lisa A. Smith is an administrative nursing supervisor at Banner University Medical Center-Phoenix in Phoenix, Ariz. Charles A. Larsen is a director of nursing at Banner Baywood Medical Center and Banner Heart Hospital in Mesa, Ariz. Karen L. Johnson is director of nursing research at Banner Health in Phoenix, Ariz
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ISSN 0360-4039 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28027137 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1617
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Author Wood, J.M.; Tyrrell, R.A.; Carberry, T.P.
Title Limitations in drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Human Factors Abbreviated Journal Hum Factors
Volume (up) 47 Issue 3 Pages 644-653
Keywords Vision; Public Safety; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; *Automobile Driving/psychology; Clothing; *Darkness; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Reaction Time; Task Performance and Analysis; Visual Perception
Abstract This study quantified drivers' ability to recognize pedestrians at night. Ten young and 10 older participants drove around a closed road circuit and responded when they first recognized a pedestrian. Four pedestrian clothing and two beam conditions were tested. Results demonstrate that driver age, clothing configuration, headlamp beam, and glare all significantly affect performance. Drivers recognized only 5% of pedestrians in the most challenging condition (low beams, black clothing, glare), whereas drivers recognized 100% of the pedestrians who wore retroreflective clothing configured to depict biological motion (no glare). In the absence of glare, mean recognition distances varied from 0.0 m (older drivers, low beam, black clothing) to 220 m (722 feet; younger drivers, high beam, retroreflective biomotion). These data provide new motivation to minimize interactions between vehicular and pedestrian traffic at night and suggest garment designs to maximize pedestrian conspicuity when these interactions are unavoidable.
Address Center for Eye Research, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia. j.wood@qut.edu.au
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ISSN 0018-7208 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:16435703 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2804
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Author Gibbons, R.; Terry, T.; Bhagavathula, R.; Meyer, J.; Lewis, A.
Title Applicability of mesopic factors to the driving task Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume (up) 48 Issue 1 Pages 70-82
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract With the advent of light-emitting diode technology being applied to roadway lighting, the spectral power distribution of the light source is becoming much more important. In this experiment, the detection of pedestrians at five adaptation levels under three light sources, high pressure sodium and light emitting diodes of two colour temperatures was measured in realistic roadway scenarios. The results show that while the light source type was not significant, an increase in adaptation luminance increased the detection distance. As the offset of the object to the roadway increased, some spectral effects became more significant; however, this effect was not consistent across all angles of eccentricity. The conclusions from this work indicate that mesopic factors may not be applicable on high-speed roads.
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1382
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