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Author Park, H.-K.; Gu, J.-H.; Lee, K.-M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A study on selecting of Light Cutoff Panel depending on the installation condition using the lighting simulation Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society Abbreviated Journal Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 246-251  
  Keywords Lighting; Light cutoff panel; Light pollution; Light trespass; Relux; Security light  
  Abstract The use of security lighting that emits spill light is considered a cause of light trespass problems in the residential areas. Therefore, a cutoff panel was installed as an alternative way to reduce light trespass. On the other hand, it has another problem in that it is less effective and is not good enough for aesthetics and safety. In this study, a light cutoff panel was designed and manufactured to reduce the light trespass, and the structure of a proper light cutoff panel was studied. Using a goniophotometer, the light distribution file (IES file) was extracted and the characteristics of light distribution were analyzed using the RELUX program. The results showed that the reduction of spilt light in the backward direction was decreased significantly for all types of light cutoff panels except the coated globe. In the case of a black powder coated light cutoff panel, the forward light caused by light reflected from the surface of the light cutoff panel was also reduced, which means that the black powder coated light cutoff panel is effective in the performance of light cutoff in the forward and backward directions. In addition, the coated glove increased the spilt light in the forward and backward directions because it reflects the upward light to go down. A 90 % accuracy between the measurement value of light trespass and the expected value of the light trespass was obtained from a simulation.  
  Address National Institute of Environmental Research; mossad61(at)korea.kr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher KoreaScience Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Korean Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1975-4701 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 1448  
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Author Marchant, P.R. url  openurl
  Title Why Lighting Claims Might Well Be Wrong Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal Intl J of Sustainable Lighting  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 69-74  
  Keywords Security; Crime; lighting; regulation  
  Abstract This paper gives some background to claims of benefit from road lighting and why large beneficial claims may be suspect. It places this in the context of general concerns about the unreliability of claims in science using knowledge gained, particularly from investigations in the field of health-care. It points to the need to plan, proceed and check science in unbiased and rigorous ways. It gives recommendations for more transparency, asks for clear protocols to be produced in advance, that clear reports are written which follow appropriate reporting guidelines and that the data is accessible.  
  Address Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; P.Marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher IJSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) IDA @ john @ Serial 1678  
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Author Clark, B.A.J. url  openurl
  Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
  Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety  
  Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.  
  Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017  
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Author Reagan, I.J.; Brumbelow, M.; Frischmann, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev  
  Volume 76 Issue Pages 74-82  
  Keywords security; lighting  
  Abstract Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested.  
  Address Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Research 1005 N Glebe Rd., Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22201, United States  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:25603548 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1251  
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Author Fotios, S.; Unwin, J.; Farrall, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark: A review Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 449-469  
  Keywords Security, psychology  
  Abstract This paper concerns road lighting for pedestrians and how this aids reassurance, their confidence when walking alone after dark. Evidence from past studies that lighting enhances reassurance is supported by the findings of an unfocussed approach that aimed deliberately to avoid focus on lighting or fear, thus to counter the unintended potential for focussed, quantitative methods to lead towards such a finding. Review of the characteristics of lighting suggests an optimum illuminance of 10 lux, of high S/P ratio, and aimed toward the pedestrian and natural elements of the environment, will enhance reassurance. Further research is needed to validate the optimum illuminance, the appropriate metric for characterising lamp spectral power distribution, and the most desirable aims of spatial distribution.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1355  
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