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Author Fotios, S.; Monteiro, A.L.; Uttley, J.
Title Evaluation of pedestrian reassurance gained by higher illuminances in residential streets using the day–dark approach Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Psychology; Security
Abstract A field study was conducted to investigate how changes in the illuminance affect pedestrian reassurance when walking after dark in an urban location. The field study was conducted in daytime and after dark in order to employ the day–dark approach to analysis of optimal lighting. The results suggest that minimum illuminance is a better predictor of reassurance than is mean illuminance. For a day–dark difference of 0.5 units on a 6-point response scale, the results suggest a minimum horizontal illuminance of approximately 2.0 lux.
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ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2159
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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.J.
Title New nighttime roadway lighting documentation applied to public safety at night: A case study in San Antonio, Texas Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society
Volume 46 Issue Pages 101459
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security; Planning
Abstract Built environment and public safety professionals view street lighting as an important factor in improving the well-being of the community at night. Extant research that has examined the relationship between street lighting and public safety has found inconclusive or mixed results and has called for more extensive lighting metrics. Using new lighting measurement technologies and geographic information science, this study builds on previous work to demonstrate new metrics to consider when evaluating public safety, specifically crime and traffic accidents. Downtown San Antonio, Texas is used as a case study to explore illuminance levels on roadways and the driver’s eye, and how these metrics can be used to understand the lighting characteristics of where crime and traffic accidents occur. The findings indicate that the central downtown district in San Antonio has higher illuminance levels than the existing roadway lighting guidelines while the residential downtown neighborhoods have insufficient light levels. Statistical analysis reveals that roadway illuminance levels are higher in areas where no crime occurred and driver’s eye illuminance levels are lower in areas with no traffic accidents. The findings prove the usefulness of new lighting documentation techniques and support the importance of considering illuminance metrics when assessing crime and traffic accidents at night.
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ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2191
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Author DeCoursey, W., Braun, D., & Oza, J.
Title Pedestrian Lighting, Acceptable Levels of Light: A Pilot Project Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Institute for Public Administration Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract This pilot project study was intended to demonstrate that assessing the adequacy of an area’s pedestrian lighting need not be an expensive, time-consuming, or overly complicated process. Though the discussion of methods of pedestrian lighting can become quite technical and involved, as demonstrated in a 2016 IPA report on the topic, “Delaware Transportation Lighting Inventory & Assessment” (http://www.ipa.udel.edu/publications/transportationlighting-2016.pdf), simply observing and recording light levels in a given study area is quite straightforward.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2710
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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
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ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:19452370 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788
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Author Reagan, I.J.; Brumbelow, M.; Frischmann, T.
Title On-road experiment to assess drivers' detection of roadside targets as a function of headlight system, target placement, and target reflectance Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Accident; Analysis and Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accid Anal Prev
Volume 76 Issue Pages 74-82
Keywords security; lighting
Abstract Adaptive headlights swivel with steering input to keep the beams on the roadway as drivers negotiate curves. To assess the effects of this feature on driver's visual performance, a field experiment was conducted at night on a rural, unlit, and unlined two-lane road during which 20 adult participant drivers searched a set of 60 targets. High- (n=30) and low- (n=30) reflectance targets were evenly distributed on straight road sections and on the inside or outside of curves. Participants completed three target detection trials: once with adaptive high-intensity discharge (HID) headlights, once with fixed HID headlights, and once with fixed halogen headlights. Results indicated the adaptive HID headlights helped drivers detect targets that were most difficult to see (low reflectance) at the points in curves found by other researchers to be most crucial for successful navigation (inside apex). For targets placed on straight stretches of road or on the outside of curves, the adaptive feature provided no significant improvement in target detection. However, the pattern of results indicate that HID lamps whether fixed or adaptive improved target detection somewhat, suggesting that part of the real world crash reduction measured for this adaptive system (Highway Loss Data Institute (HLDI), 2012a) may be due to the differences in the light source (HID vs. halogen). Depending on the scenario, the estimated benefits to driver response time associated with the tested adaptive (swiveling HID) headlights ranged from 200 to 380ms compared with the fixed headlight systems tested.
Address Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Research 1005 N Glebe Rd., Suite 800, Arlington, VA 22201, United States
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) PMID:25603548 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1251
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