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Author Marchant, Paul url  openurl
  Title Bad Science: comments on the paper ‘Quantifying the impact of road lighting on road safety — a New zealand Study’ by Jackett & Frith (2013). Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (down) World Transport Policy and Practice Abbreviated Journal World Transp Policy & Practice  
  Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 10-20  
  Keywords Safety; Security; Commentary; Statistics; Collisions  
  Abstract The paper of Jackett & Frith (2013), which purports to show considerable gains for road safety with increasing road luminance, is seriously flawed. It asserts that increasing the luminance on roads causes improvements in road safety. Its cross-sectional design fails to rule out major potential confounders. using a longitudinal design would be a far superior approach. The paper exhibits poor statistical practice. The selection process for the relatively small sample of urban roads is unclear and the post hoc processing of the data is questionable. The analysis is seriously deficient, as variables which indicate detrimental effects of increased road lighting are removed from the modelling without proper justification and other variables are not included in the first analysis yet appear in the subsequent cosmetic analyses. The latter give an illusion of false certainty. The data collected, which would allow checking, is not published. The practice of the journal in which the paper appeared is seriously deficient in not allowing the publication of critical responses. although being used to promote increased road lighting, the paper’s claim disagrees with results from better quality research  
  Address 221 Leighton Hall, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom LS1 3HE; p.marchant(at)leedsbeckett.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher World Transport Policy and Practice Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1352-7614 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes A corrected appendix to this paper is available on page 50 of: http://worldtransportjournal.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/08/26.3-final.pdf. Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2862  
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Author Struyf P.; Enhus E.; Bauwens T.; Melgaço L. url  openurl
  Title Literature study: The effects of reduced public lighting on crime, fear of crime, and road safety Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (down) west-vlaanderen Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Safety; Security; Psychology; Review  
  Abstract 1. Introduction

1.1 Stating the problem: security versus climate and economic challenges

Public street lighting as a public service is often taken for granted. However, its impact on the nocturnal perception of public space should not be underestimated. It encourages people to get out, feel safe, and be safe. Indeed, Welsh and Farrington suggest that public lighting enhances social control, cohesion, and a feeling of community pride (Welsh & Farrington, 2008b). According to (Williams, 2008), this is due to the special meaning attached to the darkness of night in society. It is associated with changes in social norms and values, transgression, the release of social control, feasting, drinking, and pleasure. Meanwhile, the darkness of night generates unpredictability, uncertainty and, therefore, fear. Illuminating the night chases away these feelings; people feel reassured and safer (Schivelbusch, 1995).
 
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  Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3206  
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Author Wanvik, P.O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication (down) Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.  
  Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788  
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Author Suk, J.Y.; Walter, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title New nighttime roadway lighting documentation applied to public safety at night: A case study in San Antonio, Texas Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (down) Sustainable Cities and Society Abbreviated Journal Sustainable Cities and Society  
  Volume 46 Issue Pages 101459  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security; Planning  
  Abstract Built environment and public safety professionals view street lighting as an important factor in improving the well-being of the community at night. Extant research that has examined the relationship between street lighting and public safety has found inconclusive or mixed results and has called for more extensive lighting metrics. Using new lighting measurement technologies and geographic information science, this study builds on previous work to demonstrate new metrics to consider when evaluating public safety, specifically crime and traffic accidents. Downtown San Antonio, Texas is used as a case study to explore illuminance levels on roadways and the driver’s eye, and how these metrics can be used to understand the lighting characteristics of where crime and traffic accidents occur. The findings indicate that the central downtown district in San Antonio has higher illuminance levels than the existing roadway lighting guidelines while the residential downtown neighborhoods have insufficient light levels. Statistical analysis reveals that roadway illuminance levels are higher in areas where no crime occurred and driver’s eye illuminance levels are lower in areas with no traffic accidents. The findings prove the usefulness of new lighting documentation techniques and support the importance of considering illuminance metrics when assessing crime and traffic accidents at night.  
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  ISSN 2210-6707 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2191  
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Author Svechkina, A.; Trop, T.; Portnov, B.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How Much Lighting is Required to Feel Safe When Walking Through the Streets at Night? Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (down) Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability  
  Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 3133  
  Keywords Public Safety; Security  
  Abstract Public space lighting (PSL) is indispensable after the natural dark. However, little is known about how much PSL people actually need to feel sufficiently safe in different real-world urban settings. The present study attempts to answer this question by employing a novel real-time interactive approach, according to which, observers use a specially-designed mobile phone application to assess and report the perceived attributes of street lighting and the feeling of safety (FoS) it generates. To validate the proposed approach, a systematic survey was conducted in three cities in Israel—Tel Aviv-Yafo and Haifa, which lie on the Mediterranean coast, and Be’er Sheba, which lies inland. Additionally, instrumental PSL measurements were performed at the same locations. As the study reveals, the necessary level of illumination required by urban residents to feel safe differs by city and is significantly higher in Be’er Sheba, other factors held equal, in compare to Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This difference may be attributed to stronger daylight that the residents of the desert city of Be’er Sheba are accustomed to, and, therefore, may prefer stronger nighttime illumination. The difference could also be related to the relatively low socio-economic status and somewhat higher crime rates in the latter city. Findings also show a significant and positive association between FoS and instrumentally measured PSL levels, although this association exhibits diminishing returns. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to use an interactive location- and time-based mobile phone technology, which can potentially provide more accurate and reliable assessments, compared to traditional “pen and paper” survey techniques.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2884  
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