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Author Svechkina, A.; Trop, T.; Portnov, B.A.
Title How Much Lighting is Required to Feel Safe When Walking Through the Streets at Night? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 3133
Keywords Public Safety; Security
Abstract Public space lighting (PSL) is indispensable after the natural dark. However, little is known about how much PSL people actually need to feel sufficiently safe in different real-world urban settings. The present study attempts to answer this question by employing a novel real-time interactive approach, according to which, observers use a specially-designed mobile phone application to assess and report the perceived attributes of street lighting and the feeling of safety (FoS) it generates. To validate the proposed approach, a systematic survey was conducted in three cities in Israel—Tel Aviv-Yafo and Haifa, which lie on the Mediterranean coast, and Be’er Sheba, which lies inland. Additionally, instrumental PSL measurements were performed at the same locations. As the study reveals, the necessary level of illumination required by urban residents to feel safe differs by city and is significantly higher in Be’er Sheba, other factors held equal, in compare to Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This difference may be attributed to stronger daylight that the residents of the desert city of Be’er Sheba are accustomed to, and, therefore, may prefer stronger nighttime illumination. The difference could also be related to the relatively low socio-economic status and somewhat higher crime rates in the latter city. Findings also show a significant and positive association between FoS and instrumentally measured PSL levels, although this association exhibits diminishing returns. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to use an interactive location- and time-based mobile phone technology, which can potentially provide more accurate and reliable assessments, compared to traditional “pen and paper” survey techniques.
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ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2884
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Author Struyf P.; Enhus E.; Bauwens T.; Melgaço L.
Title Literature study: The effects of reduced public lighting on crime, fear of crime, and road safety Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication west-vlaanderen Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Safety; Security; Psychology; Review
Abstract 1. Introduction

1.1 Stating the problem: security versus climate and economic challenges

Public street lighting as a public service is often taken for granted. However, its impact on the nocturnal perception of public space should not be underestimated. It encourages people to get out, feel safe, and be safe. Indeed, Welsh and Farrington suggest that public lighting enhances social control, cohesion, and a feeling of community pride (Welsh & Farrington, 2008b). According to (Williams, 2008), this is due to the special meaning attached to the darkness of night in society. It is associated with changes in social norms and values, transgression, the release of social control, feasting, drinking, and pleasure. Meanwhile, the darkness of night generates unpredictability, uncertainty and, therefore, fear. Illuminating the night chases away these feelings; people feel reassured and safer (Schivelbusch, 1995).
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3206
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Author Steinbach, R.; Perkins, C.; Tompson, L.; Johnson, S.; Armstrong, B.; Green, J.; Grundy, C.; Wilkinson, P.; Edwards, P.
Title The effect of reduced street lighting on road casualties and crime in England and Wales: controlled interrupted time series analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Epidemiology Community Health Abbreviated Journal J. Epidemiol. Community Health
Volume 69 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Safety; public safety; England; Wales; United Kindgom; traffic safety; street lighting; outdoor lighting; crime; security; light adaptation strategies
Abstract Background: Many local authorities in England and Wales have reduced street lighting at night to save money and reduce carbon emissions. There is no evidence to date on whether these reductions impact on public health. We quantified the effect of 4 street lighting adaptation strategies (switch off, part-night lighting, dimming and white light) on casualties and crime in England and Wales.

Methods: Observational study based on analysis of geographically coded police data on road traffic collisions and crime in 62 local authorities. Conditional Poisson models were used to analyse longitudinal changes in the counts of night-time collisions occurring on affected roads during 2000–2013, and crime within census Middle Super Output Areas during 2010–2013. Effect estimates were adjusted for regional temporal trends in casualties and crime.

Results: There was no evidence that any street lighting adaptation strategy was associated with a change in collisions at night. There was significant statistical heterogeneity in the effects on crime estimated at police force level. Overall, there was no evidence for an association between the aggregate count of crime and switch off (RR 0.11; 95% CI 0.01 to 2.75) or part-night lighting (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.86 to 1.06). There was weak evidence for a reduction in the aggregate count of crime and dimming (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.70 to 1.02) and white light (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.77 to 1.03).

Conclusions: This study found little evidence of harmful effects of switch off, part-night lighting, dimming, or changes to white light/LEDs on road collisions or crime in England and Wales.
Address Department of Population Health, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Phil.Edwards(at)lshtm.ac.uk
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Publisher BMJ Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1470-2738 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1224
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S., J.A.
Title Parking lot lighting based upon predictions of scene brightness and personal safety Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 293-304
Keywords Lightingl Security; parking lots; public perceptions; lighting levels
Abstract Providing subjective impressions of security is central to outdoor lighting design. Current parking lot lighting recommendations are based upon photopic illuminances, regardless of spectrum. Scene brightness perception is directly related to impressions of security, and depends upon both light level and spectrum. A provisional model was used to predict scene brightness for three parking lots, each illuminated to different levels by different light sources. Observers judged scene brightness, security and other factors for each lot. The provisional model accurately predicted both scene brightness and security judgements. The lighting associated with the best subjective ratings also had the lowest power density. A design method using ‘brightness illuminance’ is presented, which can lower system costs while maintaining a sense of security by users.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Email: ream(at)rpi.edu
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Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1256
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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S.
Title Impressions of Lighting in Public Squares After Dark Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environment & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Env. & Behav.
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 227-254
Keywords Psychology; public lighting; public safety; security; crime; perception; outdoor lighting
Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public squares. Following studies on office interior lighting, the present research manipulated three modes of lighting—non-uniform–uniform, peripheral–overhead, and dim–bright—in three virtual squares. One study had 32 participants (15 men, 17 women) judge the spaciousness and privacy of each of the 24 public squares. A second study had a different group of 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) rate the appeal, safety from crime, and excitement of each square. Study 1 found that judged spaciousness increased with uniform and bright lighting, and that privacy increased with non-uniform, dim, and peripheral lighting. Study 2 found that rated appeal increased with uniform and bright lighting, as did safety from crime and excitement. Across the two studies, the uniform and bright lighting conditions contributed most to the kinds of favorable experiences people might expect to have in public spaces after dark.
Address City & Regional Planning, Ohio State University, 200 Knowlton Hall 275 W Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Email: nasar.1(at)osu.edu
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Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1390
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