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Author Struyf P.; Enhus E.; Bauwens T.; Melgaço L.
Title (down) Literature study: The effects of reduced public lighting on crime, fear of crime, and road safety Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication west-vlaanderen Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Safety; Security; Psychology; Review
Abstract 1. Introduction

1.1 Stating the problem: security versus climate and economic challenges

Public street lighting as a public service is often taken for granted. However, its impact on the nocturnal perception of public space should not be underestimated. It encourages people to get out, feel safe, and be safe. Indeed, Welsh and Farrington suggest that public lighting enhances social control, cohesion, and a feeling of community pride (Welsh & Farrington, 2008b). According to (Williams, 2008), this is due to the special meaning attached to the darkness of night in society. It is associated with changes in social norms and values, transgression, the release of social control, feasting, drinking, and pleasure. Meanwhile, the darkness of night generates unpredictability, uncertainty and, therefore, fear. Illuminating the night chases away these feelings; people feel reassured and safer (Schivelbusch, 1995).
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Call Number UP @ altintas1 @ Serial 3206
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Author Kersavage, K.; Skinner, N.P.; Bullough, J.D.; Garvey, P.M.; Donnell, E.T.; Rea, M.S.
Title (down) Investigation of flashing and intensity characteristics for vehicle-mounted warning beacons Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Accident Analysis & Prevention Abbreviated Journal Accident Analysis & Prevention
Volume 119 Issue Pages 23-28
Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting
Abstract Reducing the potential for crashes involving front line service workers and passing vehicles is important for increasing worker safety in work zones and similar locations. Flashing yellow warning beacons are often used to protect, delineate, and provide visual information to drivers within and approaching work zones. A nighttime field study using simulated workers, with and without reflective vests, present outside trucks was conducted to evaluate the effects of different warning beacon intensities and flash frequencies. Interactions between intensity and flash frequency were also analyzed. This study determined that intensitiesof 25/2.5 cd and 150/15 cd (peak/trough intensity) provided the farthest detection distances of the simulated worker. Mean detection distances in response to a flash frequency of 1 Hz were not statistically different from those in response to 4 Hz flashing. Simulated workers wearing reflective vests were seen the farthest distances away from the trucks for all combinations of intensity and flash frequency.
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ISSN 0001-4575 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1950
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Author Nasar, J.L.; Bokharaei, S.
Title (down) Impressions of Lighting in Public Squares After Dark Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Environment & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Env. & Behav.
Volume 43 Issue 3 Pages 227-254
Keywords Psychology; public lighting; public safety; security; crime; perception; outdoor lighting
Abstract Lighting may affect impressions of public squares. Following studies on office interior lighting, the present research manipulated three modes of lighting—non-uniform–uniform, peripheral–overhead, and dim–bright—in three virtual squares. One study had 32 participants (15 men, 17 women) judge the spaciousness and privacy of each of the 24 public squares. A second study had a different group of 30 participants (16 men, 14 women) rate the appeal, safety from crime, and excitement of each square. Study 1 found that judged spaciousness increased with uniform and bright lighting, and that privacy increased with non-uniform, dim, and peripheral lighting. Study 2 found that rated appeal increased with uniform and bright lighting, as did safety from crime and excitement. Across the two studies, the uniform and bright lighting conditions contributed most to the kinds of favorable experiences people might expect to have in public spaces after dark.
Address City & Regional Planning, Ohio State University, 200 Knowlton Hall 275 W Woodruff Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA. Email: nasar.1(at)osu.edu
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Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0013-9165 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1390
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Author Svechkina, A.; Trop, T.; Portnov, B.A.
Title (down) How Much Lighting is Required to Feel Safe When Walking Through the Streets at Night? Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal Sustainability
Volume 12 Issue 8 Pages 3133
Keywords Public Safety; Security
Abstract Public space lighting (PSL) is indispensable after the natural dark. However, little is known about how much PSL people actually need to feel sufficiently safe in different real-world urban settings. The present study attempts to answer this question by employing a novel real-time interactive approach, according to which, observers use a specially-designed mobile phone application to assess and report the perceived attributes of street lighting and the feeling of safety (FoS) it generates. To validate the proposed approach, a systematic survey was conducted in three cities in Israel—Tel Aviv-Yafo and Haifa, which lie on the Mediterranean coast, and Be’er Sheba, which lies inland. Additionally, instrumental PSL measurements were performed at the same locations. As the study reveals, the necessary level of illumination required by urban residents to feel safe differs by city and is significantly higher in Be’er Sheba, other factors held equal, in compare to Haifa and Tel Aviv-Yafo. This difference may be attributed to stronger daylight that the residents of the desert city of Be’er Sheba are accustomed to, and, therefore, may prefer stronger nighttime illumination. The difference could also be related to the relatively low socio-economic status and somewhat higher crime rates in the latter city. Findings also show a significant and positive association between FoS and instrumentally measured PSL levels, although this association exhibits diminishing returns. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to use an interactive location- and time-based mobile phone technology, which can potentially provide more accurate and reliable assessments, compared to traditional “pen and paper” survey techniques.
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ISSN 2071-1050 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2884
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Author Fotios, S.; Monteiro, A.L.; Uttley, J.
Title (down) Evaluation of pedestrian reassurance gained by higher illuminances in residential streets using the day–dark approach Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume in press Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Psychology; Security
Abstract A field study was conducted to investigate how changes in the illuminance affect pedestrian reassurance when walking after dark in an urban location. The field study was conducted in daytime and after dark in order to employ the day–dark approach to analysis of optimal lighting. The results suggest that minimum illuminance is a better predictor of reassurance than is mean illuminance. For a day–dark difference of 0.5 units on a 6-point response scale, the results suggest a minimum horizontal illuminance of approximately 2.0 lux.
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2159
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