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Author Clark, B.A.J.
Title (up) Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety
Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017
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Author Rea, M.S.; Bullough, J.D.; Brons, M.S., J.A.
Title (up) Parking lot lighting based upon predictions of scene brightness and personal safety Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Res. & Tech.
Volume 49 Issue 3 Pages 293-304
Keywords Lightingl Security; parking lots; public perceptions; lighting levels
Abstract Providing subjective impressions of security is central to outdoor lighting design. Current parking lot lighting recommendations are based upon photopic illuminances, regardless of spectrum. Scene brightness perception is directly related to impressions of security, and depends upon both light level and spectrum. A provisional model was used to predict scene brightness for three parking lots, each illuminated to different levels by different light sources. Observers judged scene brightness, security and other factors for each lot. The provisional model accurately predicted both scene brightness and security judgements. The lighting associated with the best subjective ratings also had the lowest power density. A design method using ‘brightness illuminance’ is presented, which can lower system costs while maintaining a sense of security by users.
Address Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 21 Union Street, Troy, NY 12180, USA. Email: ream(at)rpi.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher SAGE Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-0938 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1256
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Author DeCoursey, W., Braun, D., & Oza, J.
Title (up) Pedestrian Lighting, Acceptable Levels of Light: A Pilot Project Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Institute for Public Administration Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract This pilot project study was intended to demonstrate that assessing the adequacy of an area’s pedestrian lighting need not be an expensive, time-consuming, or overly complicated process. Though the discussion of methods of pedestrian lighting can become quite technical and involved, as demonstrated in a 2016 IPA report on the topic, “Delaware Transportation Lighting Inventory & Assessment” (http://www.ipa.udel.edu/publications/transportationlighting-2016.pdf), simply observing and recording light levels in a given study area is quite straightforward.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2710
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Author Fotios, S.; Unwin, J.; Farrall, S.
Title (up) Road lighting and pedestrian reassurance after dark: A review Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology
Volume 47 Issue 4 Pages 449-469
Keywords Security, psychology
Abstract This paper concerns road lighting for pedestrians and how this aids reassurance, their confidence when walking alone after dark. Evidence from past studies that lighting enhances reassurance is supported by the findings of an unfocussed approach that aimed deliberately to avoid focus on lighting or fear, thus to counter the unintended potential for focussed, quantitative methods to lead towards such a finding. Review of the characteristics of lighting suggests an optimum illuminance of 10 lux, of high S/P ratio, and aimed toward the pedestrian and natural elements of the environment, will enhance reassurance. Further research is needed to validate the optimum illuminance, the appropriate metric for characterising lamp spectral power distribution, and the most desirable aims of spatial distribution.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1355
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Author Fotios, S.; Gibbons, R.
Title (up) Road lighting research for drivers and pedestrians: The basis of luminance and illuminance recommendations Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 154-186
Keywords Security; Public Safety; Lighting; Review
Abstract This article discusses quantitative recommendations for road lighting as given in guidelines and standards, primarily, the amount of light. The discussion is framed according to the type of road user, the driver and the pedestrian, these being the user groups associated with major and minor roads, respectively. Presented first is a brief history of road lighting standards, from early to current versions, and, where known, the basis of these standards. Recommendations for the amount of light do not appear to be well-founded in robust empirical evidence, or at least do not tend to reveal the nature of any evidence. This suggests a need to reconsider recommended light levels, a need reinforced by recent developments in the science and technology of lighting and of lighting research. To enable improved recommendations, there is a need for further evidence of the effects of changes in lighting: This article therefore discusses the findings of investigations, which might be considered when developing new standards.
Address
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1790
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