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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev
Volume (down) 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788
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Author Clark, B.A.J.
Title Outdoor Lighting and Crime, Part 2: Coupled Growth. Type Report
Year 2003 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) Issue Pages
Keywords Security; Society; Safety; crime; public safety
Abstract Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
Address Astronomical Society of Victoria, Inc., Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Self-published Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1017
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Author Davidovic, M.; Djokic, L.; Cabarkapa, A.; Kostic, M.
Title Warm white versus neutral white LED street lighting: Pedestrians' impressions Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume (down) in press Issue Pages 147715351880429
Keywords Psychology; Security
Abstract The subjective impressions of pedestrians are necessary in order to decide on the appropriate colour of light to be used for street lighting. Therefore, a pilot project aimed to compare subjective evaluations of the sidewalk illumination under two street lighting installations, realised by LEDs of 3000 K (warm white) and 4000 K (neutral white), was recently conducted in Belgrade. Both installations had comparable sidewalk illuminances as well as other relevant photometric parameters. The evaluation was done through a questionnaire. A group of 139 (61 male and 78 female) respondents, all of them university students, was asked to grade both lighting installations for the sidewalk light intensity, the appearance of human faces, the colour of light and the colour rendering as well as the overall impression. According to the median values, the 3000 K LED installation was considered better than the 4000 K installation for all aspects assessed as well as the overall impression. Although the survey results convincingly showed a preference for 3000 K LEDs for this comparison, additional research is needed using a more representative sample of people and a wider range of locations before a definite conclusion can be reached.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2045
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Author Fotios, S.; Monteiro, A.L.; Uttley, J.
Title Evaluation of pedestrian reassurance gained by higher illuminances in residential streets using the day–dark approach Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology
Volume (down) in press Issue Pages
Keywords Vision; Psychology; Security
Abstract A field study was conducted to investigate how changes in the illuminance affect pedestrian reassurance when walking after dark in an urban location. The field study was conducted in daytime and after dark in order to employ the day–dark approach to analysis of optimal lighting. The results suggest that minimum illuminance is a better predictor of reassurance than is mean illuminance. For a day–dark difference of 0.5 units on a 6-point response scale, the results suggest a minimum horizontal illuminance of approximately 2.0 lux.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2159
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Author DeCoursey, W., Braun, D., & Oza, J.
Title Pedestrian Lighting, Acceptable Levels of Light: A Pilot Project Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Institute for Public Administration Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract This pilot project study was intended to demonstrate that assessing the adequacy of an area’s pedestrian lighting need not be an expensive, time-consuming, or overly complicated process. Though the discussion of methods of pedestrian lighting can become quite technical and involved, as demonstrated in a 2016 IPA report on the topic, “Delaware Transportation Lighting Inventory & Assessment” (http://www.ipa.udel.edu/publications/transportationlighting-2016.pdf), simply observing and recording light levels in a given study area is quite straightforward.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2710
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