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Author Vollmer, C.; Michel, U.; Randler, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) Outdoor light at night (LAN) is correlated with eveningness in adolescents Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int  
  Volume 29 Issue 4 Pages 502-508  
  Keywords Adolescent; *Adolescent Behavior/drug effects; Biological Clocks; Central Nervous System Stimulants/administration & dosage; *Circadian Rhythm/drug effects; Computers; Cross-Sectional Studies; Female; Germany; Humans; *Light; Lighting; Male; *Photic Stimulation; *Photoperiod; Questionnaires; *Sleep/drug effects; Television; Time Factors; Video Games; *Wakefulness/drug effects  
  Abstract External zeitgebers synchronize the human circadian rhythm of sleep and wakefulness. Humans adapt their chronotype to the day-night cycle, the strongest external zeitgeber. The human circadian rhythm shifts to evening-type orientation when daylight is prolonged into the evening and night hours by artificial light sources. Data from a survey of 1507 German adolescents covering questions about chronotype and electronic screen media use combined with nocturnal satellite image data suggest a relationship between chronotype and artificial nocturnal light. Adolescents living in brightly illuminated urban districts had a stronger evening-type orientation than adolescents living in darker and more rural municipalities. This result persisted when controlling for time use of electronic screen media, intake of stimulants, type of school, age, puberty status, time of sunrise, sex, and population density. Time spent on electronic screen media use-a source of indoor light at night-is also correlated with eveningness, as well as intake of stimulants, age, and puberty status, and, to a lesser degree, type of school and time of sunrise. Adequate urban development design and parents limiting adolescents' electronic screen media use in the evening could help to adjust adolescents' zeitgeber to early school schedules when they provide appropriate lighting conditions for daytime and for nighttime.  
  Address Department of Biology, University of Education Heidelberg, Germany. vollmer@ph-heidelberg.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22214237 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 150  
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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Wood, B.; Plitnick, B.; Rea, M.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) The impact of watching television on evening melatonin levels: Impact of watching television on evening melatonin Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of the Society for Information Display Abbreviated Journal Jnl Soc Info Display  
  Volume 21 Issue 10 Pages 417-421  
  Keywords Human Health; television; correlated color temperature; sleep; melatonin levels; blue light; circadian disruption  
  Abstract Self-luminous electronic devices emit optical radiation at short wavelengths, close to the peak sensitivity of melatonin suppression. The present paper investigated if light from a 178-cm (70 in.) television suppressed melatonin. Results showed that light from televisions does not impact melatonin levels in the evening.  
  Address  
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  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1071-0922 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 498  
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