toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Dukic, T.; Ahlstrom, C.; Patten, C.; Kettwich, C.; Kircher, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume 14 Issue 5 Pages 469-476  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*methods; *Attention; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Eye Movements; Humans; Middle Aged; Psychomotor Performance; Sweden; Time Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance. METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures. RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data. CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.  
  Address Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden. tania.dukic@vti.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23682577 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 247  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mottram, V.; Middleton, B.; Williams, P.; Arendt, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of bright artificial white and 'blue-enriched' light on sleep and circadian phase during the polar winter Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J Sleep Res  
  Volume 20 Issue 1 Pt 2 Pages 154-161  
  Keywords Adult; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Cold Climate; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Medical Records; Questionnaires; Sleep/*physiology; Time Factors; blue light  
  Abstract Delayed sleep phase (and sometimes free-run) is common in the Antarctic winter (no natural sunlight) and optimizing the artificial light conditions is desirable. This project evaluated sleep when using 17,000 K blue-enriched lamps compared with standard white lamps (5000 K) for personal and communal illumination. Base personnel, 10 males, five females, 32.5+/-8 years took part in the study. From 24 March to 21 September 2006 light exposure alternated between 4-5-week periods of standard white (5000 K) and blue-enriched lamps (17,000 K), with a 3-week control before and after extra light. Sleep and light exposure were assessed by actigraphy and sleep diaries. General health (RAND 36-item questionnaire) and circadian phase (urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) were evaluated at the end of each light condition. Direct comparison (rmanova) of blue-enriched light with white light showed that sleep onset was earlier by 19 min (P=0.022), and sleep latency tended to be shorter by 4 min (P=0.065) with blue-enriched light. Analysing all light conditions, control, blue and white, again provided evidence for greater efficiency of blue-enriched light compared with white (P<0.05), but with the best sleep timing, duration, efficiency and quality in control natural light conditions. Circadian phase was earlier on average in midwinter blue compared with midwinter white light by 45 min (P<0.05). Light condition had no influence on general health. We conclude that the use of blue-enriched light had some beneficial effects, notably earlier sleep, compared with standard white light during the polar winter.  
  Address British Antarctic Survey Medical Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-1105 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20723022 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 348  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Zukauskas, A.; Vaicekauskas, R.; Vitta, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Optimization of solid-state lamps for photobiologically friendly mesopic lighting Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl Opt  
  Volume 51 Issue 35 Pages 8423-8432  
  Keywords Lighting Systems; Circadian Rhythm; Color; Equipment Design; Humans; Light; *Lighting; Melatonin/metabolism; Photobiology/*methods; Semiconductors; Time Factors; Vision, Ocular  
  Abstract The circadian and visual-performance-based mesopic systems of photometry were applied for the optimization of the spectral power distributions (SPDs) of the solid-state sources of light for low-illuminance lighting applications. At mesopic adaptation luminances typical of outdoor lighting (0.1-2 cd/m(2)), the optimal SPDs were obtained through the minimization of the mesopic circadian action factor, which is the ratio of the circadian efficacy of radiation to mesopic luminous efficacy of radiation. For correlated color temperatures below ~3000 K, the optimized dichromatic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are shown to pose a lower circadian hazard than high-pressure sodium lamps and common warm white LEDs; also they are potentially more efficacious and have acceptable color rendition properties under mesopic conditions.  
  Address Institute of Applied Research, Vilnius University, Sauletekio al. 9-III, Vilnius LT-10222, Lithuania. arturas.zukauskas@ff.vu.lt  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-6935 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23262538 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 448  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Owens, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Obesity: heavy sleepers Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 497 Issue 7450 Pages S8-9  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Body Mass Index; CLOCK Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Energy Metabolism/*physiology; Ghrelin/metabolism; Humans; Insulin Resistance/physiology; Leptin/metabolism; Male; Mice; Obesity/*physiopathology; Satiety Response/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiology; Time Factors; Weight Gain/physiology; Weight Loss/physiology  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23698508 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 503  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Stevens, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol  
  Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970  
  Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.  
  Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: