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Author Rockhill, A.P.; DePerno, C.S.; Powell, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume (up) 8 Issue 7 Pages e69213  
  Keywords Animals; Female; *Lighting; Lynx/*physiology; Male; Moon; Movement/*physiology; North Carolina; Time Factors; Wetlands  
  Abstract Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 – <50%, 50 – <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.  
  Address Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. aimee_rockhill@ncsu.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23861963; PMCID:PMC3704646 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 84  
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Author Dukic, T.; Ahlstrom, C.; Patten, C.; Kettwich, C.; Kircher, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of electronic billboards on driver distraction Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal Traffic Inj Prev  
  Volume (up) 14 Issue 5 Pages 469-476  
  Keywords Adult; Advertising as Topic/*methods; *Attention; Automobile Driving/*psychology; Eye Movements; Humans; Middle Aged; Psychomotor Performance; Sweden; Time Factors  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: There is an increase in electronic advertising billboards along major roads, which may cause driver distraction due to the highly conspicuous design of the electronic billboards. Yet limited research on the impact of electronic billboards on driving performance and driver behavior is available. The Swedish Transport Administration recently approved the installation of 12 electronic billboards for a trial period along a 3-lane motorway with heavy traffic running through central Stockholm, Sweden. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these electronic billboards on visual behavior and driving performance. METHOD: A total of 41 drivers were recruited to drive an instrumented vehicle passing 4 of the electronic billboards during day and night conditions. A driver was considered visually distracted when looking at a billboard continuously for more than 2 s or if the driver looked away from the road for a high percentage of time. Dependent variables were eye-tracking measures and driving performance measures. RESULTS: The visual behavior data showed that drivers had a significantly longer dwell time, a greater number of fixations, and longer maximum fixation duration when driving past an electronic billboard compared to other signs on the same road stretches. No differences were found for the factors day/night, and no effect was found for the driving behavior data. CONCLUSION: Electronic billboards have an effect on gaze behavior by attracting more and longer glances than regular traffic signs. Whether the electronic billboards attract too much attention and constitute a traffic safety hazard cannot be answered conclusively based on the present data.  
  Address Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linkoping, Sweden. tania.dukic@vti.se  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23682577 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 247  
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim nighttime illumination accelerates adjustment to timezone travel in an animal model Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume (up) 19 Issue 4 Pages R156-7  
  Keywords *Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Humans; *Lighting; Mesocricetus; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Time Factors  
  Abstract Jetlag reflects a mismatch between local and circadian time following rapid timezone travel [1]. Appropriately timed bright light can shift human circadian rhythms but recovery is slow (e.g., 1-2 days per timezone). Most symptoms subside after resynchronization, but chronic jetlag may have enduring negative effects [2], including even accelerated mortality in mice [3]. Melatonin, prescription drugs, and/or exercise may help shift the clock but, like bright light, require complex schedules of application [1]. Thus, there is a need for more efficient and practical treatments for addressing jetlag. In contrast to bright daytime lighting, nighttime conditions have received scant attention. By incorporating more naturalistic nighttime lighting comparable in intensity to dim moonlight, we demonstrate that recovery after simulated jetlag is accelerated when nights are dimly lit rather than completely dark.  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19243688 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 152  
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Author Kempenaers, B.; Borgstrom, P.; Loes, P.; Schlicht, E.; Valcu, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume (up) 20 Issue 19 Pages 1735-1739  
  Keywords Animals; Environmental Pollution; Female; Light; *Lighting; Male; *Reproduction; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Time Factors; *Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.  
  Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany. b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20850324 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 51  
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Author Mottram, V.; Middleton, B.; Williams, P.; Arendt, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of bright artificial white and 'blue-enriched' light on sleep and circadian phase during the polar winter Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J Sleep Res  
  Volume (up) 20 Issue 1 Pt 2 Pages 154-161  
  Keywords Adult; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Cold Climate; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Medical Records; Questionnaires; Sleep/*physiology; Time Factors; blue light  
  Abstract Delayed sleep phase (and sometimes free-run) is common in the Antarctic winter (no natural sunlight) and optimizing the artificial light conditions is desirable. This project evaluated sleep when using 17,000 K blue-enriched lamps compared with standard white lamps (5000 K) for personal and communal illumination. Base personnel, 10 males, five females, 32.5+/-8 years took part in the study. From 24 March to 21 September 2006 light exposure alternated between 4-5-week periods of standard white (5000 K) and blue-enriched lamps (17,000 K), with a 3-week control before and after extra light. Sleep and light exposure were assessed by actigraphy and sleep diaries. General health (RAND 36-item questionnaire) and circadian phase (urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) were evaluated at the end of each light condition. Direct comparison (rmanova) of blue-enriched light with white light showed that sleep onset was earlier by 19 min (P=0.022), and sleep latency tended to be shorter by 4 min (P=0.065) with blue-enriched light. Analysing all light conditions, control, blue and white, again provided evidence for greater efficiency of blue-enriched light compared with white (P<0.05), but with the best sleep timing, duration, efficiency and quality in control natural light conditions. Circadian phase was earlier on average in midwinter blue compared with midwinter white light by 45 min (P<0.05). Light condition had no influence on general health. We conclude that the use of blue-enriched light had some beneficial effects, notably earlier sleep, compared with standard white light during the polar winter.  
  Address British Antarctic Survey Medical Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-1105 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20723022 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 348  
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