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Author DeVoe, R. D.
Title Dual Sensitivities of Cells in Wolf Spider Eyes at Ultraviolet and Visible Wavelengths of Light Type Journal Article
Year 1972 Publication Journal of General Physiology Abbreviated Journal JGP
Volume 59 Issue 3 Pages 247-269
Keywords Animals; Adaptation; Animals; Color Perception; Electroretinography; Eye; Eye: radiation effects; Light; Membrane Potentials; Ocular; Ocular Physiological Phenomena; Radiation Effects; Spiders; Spiders: physiology; Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract Intracellular recordings have been made from visual cells in principal and secondary eyes of in vitro wolf spider preparations. The responses of all cells to all wavelengths of light were graded depolarizations; no hyperpolarizations or nerve discharges were seen. Cells in a secondary eye, the anterior lateral eye, had a maximum sensitivity in the visible at 510 nm and a secondary maximum, or shoulder, of sensitivity in the near ultraviolet at 380 nm. Cells in principal eyes, the anterior median eyes, all responded maximally both in the visible at 510 nm and in the ultraviolet at 360-370 nm or less. However, there was no typical ratio of ultraviolet to visible sensitivities; the differences in log sensitivities (log UV/VIS) varied from 3.3 to -0.5. Each principal eye had a population of cells with different ratios. These populations varied with the time of the year, possibly due to changes in light upon the animals. Chromatic adaptations of cells in anterior median (but not anterior lateral) eyes resulted in small, selective changes in spectral sensitivities, and there was some facilitation of responses from cells repeatedly stimulated. It is concluded that cells of secondary eyes contain only a visual pigment absorbing maximally in the visible, while cells of principal eyes probably contain variable amounts of both this pigment and one absorbing in the ultraviolet as well.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 668
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Author Froy, O.; Gotter, A.L.; Casselman, A.L.; Reppert, S.M.
Title Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 300 Issue 5623 Pages 1303-1305
Keywords Animals; *Animal Migration; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Butterflies/genetics/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cloning, Molecular; Darkness; Flight, Animal; Light; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/physiology; Period Circadian Proteins; Solar System; Ultraviolet Rays; butterflies; monarch
Abstract Migratory monarch butterflies use a time-compensated Sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Here, we report that constant light, which disrupts circadian clock function at both the behavioral and molecular levels in monarchs, also disrupts the time-compensated component of flight navigation. We further show that ultraviolet light is important for flight navigation but is not required for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms. Tracing these distinct light-input pathways into the brain should aid our understanding of the clock-compass mechanisms necessary for successful migration.
Address Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB-728, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA
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ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:12764200 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1072
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Author Kelber, A.; Balkenius, A.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Scotopic colour vision in nocturnal hawkmoths Type Journal Article
Year 2002 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume 419 Issue 6910 Pages 922-925
Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal; Color; Color Perception/*physiology; Conditioning (Psychology)/physiology; Cues; *Darkness; Discrimination Learning/physiology; Humans; Light; Lighting; Moths/*physiology; Photic Stimulation; Photoreceptor Cells, Invertebrate/physiology; Reward; Sensitivity and Specificity; Ultraviolet Rays
Abstract Humans are colour-blind at night, and it has been assumed that this is true of all animals. But colour vision is as useful for discriminating objects at night as it is during the day. Here we show, through behavioural experiments, that the nocturnal hawkmoth Deilephila elpenor uses colour vision to discriminate coloured stimuli at intensities corresponding to dim starlight (0.0001 cd x m(-2)). It can do this even if the illumination colour changes, thereby showing colour constancy-a property of true colour vision systems. In identical conditions humans are completely colour-blind. Our calculations show that the possession of three photoreceptor classes reduces the absolute sensitivity of the eye, which indicates that colour vision has a high ecological relevance in nocturnal moths. In addition, the photoreceptors of a single ommatidium absorb too few photons for reliable discrimination, indicating that spatial and/or temporal summation must occur for colour vision to be possible. Taken together, our results show that colour vision occurs at nocturnal intensities in a biologically relevant context.
Address Department of Cell and Organism Biology, Vision Group, Lund University, Helgonavagen 3, S-22362 Lund, Sweden. almut.kelber@zool.lu.se
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:12410310 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 606
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Author Kocifaj, M.; Solano Lamphar, H.A.
Title Skyglow effects in UV and visible spectra: radiative fluxes Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage
Volume 127 Issue Pages 300-307
Keywords Animals; Darkness; Environmental Exposure/*analysis; *Light; Models, Theoretical; *Ultraviolet Rays; Light pollution; Optical thickness; Public lighting system; Two stream approximation
Abstract Several studies have tried to understand the mechanisms and effects of radiative transfer under different night-sky conditions. However, most of these studies are limited to the various effects of visible spectra. Nevertheless, the invisible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum can pose a more profound threat to nature. One visible threat is from what is popularly termed skyglow. Such skyglow is caused by injudiciously situated or designed artificial night lighting systems which degrade desired sky viewing. Therefore, since lamp emissions are not limited to visible electromagnetic spectra, it is necessary to consider the complete spectrum of such lamps in order to understand the physical behaviour of diffuse radiation at terrain level. In this paper, the downward diffuse radiative flux is computed in a two-stream approximation and obtained ultraviolet spectral radiative fluxes are inter-related with luminous fluxes. Such a method then permits an estimate of ultraviolet radiation if the traditionally measured illuminance on a horizontal plane is available. The utility of such a comparison of two spectral bands is shown, using the different lamp types employed in street lighting. The data demonstrate that it is insufficient to specify lamp type and its visible flux production independently of each other. Also the UV emissions have to be treated by modellers and environmental scientists because some light sources can be fairly important pollutants in the near ultraviolet. Such light sources can affect both the living organisms and ambient environment.
Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 9, Dubravska Road, 845 03 Bratislava, Slovak Republic. kocifaj@savba.sk
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ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23792881 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 265
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Author Sliney, D.H.
Title What is light? The visible spectrum and beyond Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Eye (London, England) Abbreviated Journal Eye (Lond)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Human Health; human vision; spectrum; electromagnetic spectrum; visible; *Ultraviolet Rays; light
Abstract In this International Year of Light, it is particularly appropriate to review the historical concept of what is light and the controversies surrounding the extent of the visible spectrum. Today we recognize that light possesses both a wave and particle nature. It is also clear that the limits of visibility really extend from about 310 nm in the ultraviolet (in youth) to about 1100 nm in the near-infrared, but depend very much on the radiance, that is, 'brightness' of the light source. The spectral content of artificial lighting are undergoing very significant changes in our lifetime, and the full biological implications of the spectral content of newer lighting technologies remain to be fully explored.
Address Department of Environmental Health Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA
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ISSN 0950-222X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26768917 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1337
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