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Author Henn, M.; Nichols, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bonner, T.H. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of artificial light on the drift of aquatic insects in urban central Texas streams Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Freshwater Ecology Abbreviated Journal (up) Journal of Freshwater Ecology  
  Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 307-318  
  Keywords light pollution; stream ecology; urban ecology; drift; abiotic factors; Baetidae; Chironomidae; insects; Texas; Simuliidae; Edwards Plateau; light at night; ecology  
  Abstract Light pollution can reduce night time drift of larval aquatic insects in urban streams by disrupting their circadian rhythms. Previous studies on larval insect drift show that disruption in drift leads to changes in reproduction as well as intraspecific and interspecific interactions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the effects of extreme artificial light on insect drift in urbanized, high clarity spring systems of the karst Edwards Plateau, TX. We quantified taxa richness, diversity, and abundance in aquatic insect night time drift under two treatments (ambient night time light and artificial light addition) and among five streams using a paired design. Richness and diversity of drifting aquatic insects were similar between treatments but abundance was 37% less in the light addition treatment than that of the control. Effects of light addition on mean abundance was more notable in large streams with a 58% decrease in Simuliidae (compared to that of the control) and 51% decrease in Baetidae. Reduced drift from light addition suggests the potential of artificial lighting disrupting insect drift and consequently community structure. Results of this experiment support a growing body of knowledge on how urbanized systems influence stream communities.  
  Address Department of Biology/Aquatic Station, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-5060 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 312  
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Author Bennie, J.; Davies, T.W.; Inger, R.; Gaston, K.J.; Chisholm, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping artificial lightscapes for ecological studies Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Methods in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal (up) Methods Ecol Evol  
  Volume 5 Issue 6 Pages 534-540  
  Keywords light pollution; urban ecology; landscape ecology; diurnal; nocturnal; night; light  
  Abstract Artificial illumination of the night is increasing globally. There is growing evidence of a range of ecological impacts of artificial light and awareness of light pollution as a significant environmental issue. In urban and suburban areas, complex spatial patterns of light sources, structures and vegetation create a highly heterogeneous night-time light environment for plants and animals.

We developed a method for modelling the night-time light environment at a high spatial resolution in a small urban area for ecological studies. We used the position and height of street lights, and digital terrain and surface models, to predict the direct light intensity at different wavelengths at different heights above the ground surface.

Validation against field measurements of night-time light showed that modelled light intensities in the visible and ultraviolet portions of the spectrum were accurate.

We show how this model can be used to map biologically relevant lightscapes across an urban landscape. We also illustrate the utility of the model using night-time light maps as resistance surfaces in the software package circuitscape to predict potential movement of model nocturnal species between habitat patches and to identify key corridors and barriers to movement and dispersal.

Understanding the ecological effects of artificial light requires knowledge of the light environment experienced by organisms throughout the diurnal and annual cycles, during periods of activity and rest and during different life stages. Our approach to high-resolution mapping of artificial lightscapes can be adapted to the sensitivity to light of different species and to other urban, suburban, rural and industrial landscapes.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2041210X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 171  
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Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal (up) PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages e0150884  
  Keywords Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior  
  Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403  
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Author Schirmer, A.E.; Gallemore, C.; Liu, T.; Magle, S.; DiNello, E.; Ahmed, H.; Gilday, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping behaviorally relevant light pollution levels to improve urban habitat planning Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal (up) Sci Rep  
  Volume 9 Issue 1 Pages 1-13  
  Keywords Animals; Remote Sensing; Society; remote sensing; cities; Urban planning; urban wildlife; urban ecology  
  Abstract Artificial nighttime lights have important behavioral and ecological effects on wildlife. Combining laboratory and field techniques, we identified behaviorally relevant levels of nighttime light and mapped the extent of these light levels across the city of Chicago. We began by applying a Gaussian finite mixture model to 998 sampled illumination levels around Chicago to identify clusters of light levels. A simplified sample of these levels was replicated in the laboratory to identify light levels at which C57BL/6J mice exhibited altered circadian activity patterns. We then used camera trap and high-altitude photographic data to compare our field and laboratory observations, finding activity pattern changes in the field consistent with laboratory observations. Using these results, we mapped areas across Chicago exposed to estimated illumination levels above the value associated with statistically significant behavioral changes. Based on this measure, we found that as much as 36% of the greenspace in the city is in areas illuminated at levels greater than or equal to those at which we observe behavioral differences in the field and in the laboratory. Our findings provide evidence that artificial lighting patterns may influence wildlife behavior at a broad scale throughout urban areas, and should be considered in urban habitat planning.  
  Address Northeastern Illinois University, Dept. of Biology, 5500 St. Louis Ave., Chicago, IL, 60625, USA; a-schirmer(at) neiu.edu)  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Nature Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-2322 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 2615  
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Author Xue, X.; Lin, Y.; Zheng, Q.; Wang, K.; Zhang, J.; Deng, J.; Abubakar, G.A.; Gan, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping the fine-scale spatial pattern of artificial light pollution at night in urban environments from the perspective of bird habitats Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The Science of the Total Environment Abbreviated Journal (up) Sci Total Environ  
  Volume 702 Issue Pages 134725  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; ALAN pollution; Circuitscape; Land cover; Nighttime light image; Urban ecology  
  Abstract The increase in artificial light at night (ALAN) is a global concern, while the pattern of ALAN pollution inside urban areas has not yet been fully explored. To fill this gap, we developed a novel method to map fine-scale ALAN pollution patterns in urban bird habitats using high spatial resolution ALAN satellite data. First, an ALAN pollution map was derived from JL1-3B satellite images. Then, the core habitat nodes (CHNs) representing the main habitats for urban birds to inhabit were identified from the land cover map, which was produced using Gaofen2 (GF2) data, and the high probability corridors (HPCs), indicating high connectivity paths, were derived from Circuitscape software. Finally, the ALAN patterns in the CHNs and HPCs were analysed, and the mismatch index was proposed to evaluate the trade-off between human activity ALAN demands and ALAN supply for the protection of urban birds. The results demonstrated that 115 woodland patches covering 4149.0ha were selected as CHNs, and most of the CHNs were large urban parks or scenic spots located in the urban fringe. The 2923 modelled HPCs occupying 1179.2ha were small remaining vegetation patches and vegetated corridors along the major transport arteries. The differences in the ALAN pollution patterns between CHNs and HPCs were mainly determined by the characteristics of the green space patches and the light source types. The polluted regions in the CHNs were clustered in a few regions that suffered from concentrated and intensive ALAN, while most of the CHNs remained unaffected. In contrast, the 727 HPCs were mainly polluted by street lighting was scattered and widely distributed, resulting a more varying influence to birds than that in the CHNs. Relating patterns of the ALAN to bird habitats and connectivity provides meaningful information for comprehensive planning to alleviate the disruptive effects of ALAN pollution.  
  Address College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, Zhejiang, China. Electronic address: ganmuye@zju.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0048-9697 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31734607 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2765  
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