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Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Mapping Decadal Change in Anthropogenic Night Light Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Procedia Environmental Sciences Abbreviated Journal Procedia Environmental Sciences  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 353-358  
  Keywords night light; urban; development; EOF analysis; PCA; Zipf; spatial network; fractal; percolation; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; light at night  
  Abstract The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970's. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years [1]. The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of human settlement growth and evolution. We use temporal Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic temporal trends and stochastic year to year variance. The low order EOFs and Principal Components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are visible in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution imagery reveals multiple phases of urban growth in several cities, numerous instances of highway construction, extensive terracing networks and hydroelectric dam construction [3]. Lights also allow us to quantify the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are well-fit by power laws with exponents near -1 as predicted by Zipf's Law. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1878-0296 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 227  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Small, C.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night on Earth: Mapping decadal changes of anthropogenic night light in Asia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation  
  Volume 22 Issue Pages 40-52  
  Keywords Urban; Night light; DMSP-OLS; Landsat; Zipf; Asia; India; China; Nightsat; remote sensing; light at night; satellite  
  Abstract The defense meteorological satellite program (DMSP) operational linescan system (OLS) sensors have imaged emitted light from Earth's surface since the 1970s. Temporal overlap in the missions of 5 OLS sensors allows for intercalibration of the annual composites over the past 19 years (Elvidge et al., 2009). The resulting image time series captures a spatiotemporal signature of the growth and evolution of lighted human settlements and development. We use empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis and the temporal feature space to characterize and quantify patterns of temporal change in stable night light brightness and spatial extent since 1992. Temporal EOF analysis provides a statistical basis for representing spatially abundant temporal patterns in the image time series as uncorrelated vectors of brightness as a function of time from 1992 to 2009. The variance partition of the eigenvalue spectrum combined with temporal structure of the EOFs and spatial structure of the PCs provides a basis for distinguishing between deterministic multi-year trends and stochastic year-to-year variance. The low order EOFs and principal components (PC) space together discriminate both earlier (1990s) and later (2000s) increases and decreases in brightness. Inverse transformation of these low order dimensions reduces stochastic variance sufficiently so that tri-temporal composites depict potentially deterministic decadal trends. The most pronounced changes occur in Asia. At critical brightness threshold we find an 18% increase in the number of spatially distinct lights and an 80% increase in lighted area in southern and eastern Asia between 1992 and 2009. During this time both China and India experienced a &#8764;20% increase in number of lights and a &#8764;270% increase in lighted area – although the timing of the increase is later in China than in India. Throughout Asia a variety of different patterns of brightness increase are apparent in tri-temporal brightness composites – as well as some conspicuous areas of apparently decreasing background luminance and, in many places, intermittent light suggesting development of infrastructure rather than persistently lighted development. Vicarious validation using higher resolution Landsat imagery verifies multiple phases of urban growth in several cities as well as the consistent presence of low DN (<&#8764;15) background luminance for many agricultural areas. Lights also allow us to quantify changes in the size distribution and connectedness of different intensities of development. Over a wide range of brightnesses, the size distributions of spatially contiguous lighted area are consistent with power laws with exponents near &#8722;1 as predicted by Zipf's Law for cities. However, the larger lighted segments are much larger than individual cities; they correspond to vast spatial networks of contiguous development (Small et al., 2011).  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0303-2434 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 222  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wu, Y.; Jiang, M.; Chang, Z.; Li, Y.; Shi, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does China's Urban Development Satisfy Zipf's Law? A Multiscale Perspective from the NPP-VIIRS Nighttime Light Data Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; China; Zipf's law; multiscale analysis; nighttime lights; urban development  
  Abstract Currently, whether the urban development in China satisfies Zipf's law across different scales is still unclear. Thus, this study attempted to explore whether China's urban development satisfies Zipf's law across different scales from the National Polar-Orbiting Partnership's Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (NPP-VIIRS) nighttime light data. First, the NPP-VIIRS data were corrected. Then, based on the Zipf law model, the corrected NPP-VIIRS data were used to evaluate China's urban development at multiple scales. The results showed that the corrected NPP-VIIRS data could effectively reflect the state of urban development in China. Additionally, the Zipf index (q) values, which could express the degree of urban development, decreased from 2012 to 2018 overall in all provinces, prefectures, and counties. Since the value of q was relatively close to 1 with an R(2) value > 0.70, the development of the provinces and prefectures was close to the ideal Zipf's law state. In all counties, q > 1 with an R(2) value > 0.70, which showed that the primate county had a relatively stronger monopoly capacity. When the value of q < 1 with a continuous declination in the top 2000 counties, the top 250 prefectures, and the top 20 provinces in equilibrium, there was little difference in the scale of development at the multiscale level with an R(2) > 0.90. The results enriched our understanding of urban development in terms of Zipf's law and had valuable implications for relevant decision-makers and stakeholders.  
  Address Chongqing Engineering Research Centre for Remote Sensing Big Data Application, School of Geographical Sciences, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715, China  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32102480 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2832  
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