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Author Le Tallec, T.; Théry, M.; Perret, M.
Title Melatonin concentrations and timing of seasonal reproduction in male mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) exposed to light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J of Mammalogy
Volume 97 Issue 3 Pages 753-760
Keywords Animals; light pollution; photobiology; core temperature; locomotor activity; melatonin; Microcebus murinus; primate; testosterone; lemurs; mouse lemur
Abstract (up) Adverse effects of light at night are associated with human health problems and with changes in seasonal reproduction in several species. Owing to its role in the circadian timing system, melatonin production is suspected to mediate excess nocturnal light. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of light pollution on the timing of seasonal reproduction on a strict Malagasy long-day breeder, the nocturnal mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). We randomly exposed 12 males in wintering sexual rest to moonlight or to a light-mimicking nocturnal streetlight for 5 weeks. We monitored urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentrations (aMT6s), plasma testosterone concentrations, and testis size, and we recorded daily rhythms of core temperature and locomotor activity. In males exposed to light pollution, we observed a significant decrease in urinary aMT6s concentrations associated with changes in daily rhythm profiles and with activation of reproductive function. These results showed that males entered spontaneous sexual recrudescence leading to a summer acclimatization state, which suggests that light at night disrupts perception of day length cues, leading to an inappropriate photoentrainment of seasonal rhythms.
Address UMR 7179 Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle , 1 avenue du petit château, 91800 Brunoy, France; thery(at)mnhn.fr
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1348
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Author Atkinson, G.; Davenne, D.
Title Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 90 Issue 2-3 Pages 229-235
Keywords Human Health; Activity Cycles/*physiology; Animals; Body Temperature/physiology; Exercise/*physiology; Health; Humans; Motor Activity/physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Wakefulness/physiology
Abstract (up) Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.
Address Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Henry Cotton Campus, Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK. G.Atkinson@ljmu.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17067643; PMCID:PMC2782301 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 717
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Author Saldaña-Vázquez, R.A.; Munguía-Rosas, M.A.
Title Lunar phobia in bats and its ecological correlates: A meta-analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde Abbreviated Journal Mammalian Biology – Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde
Volume 78 Issue 3 Pages 216-219
Keywords Chiroptera; Foraging activity; Foraging habitat; Latitude; Moonlight; mammals; bats; animals
Abstract (up) Animals show several behavioral strategies to reduce predation risks. Presumably, moonlight avoidance is a strategy used by some nocturnal species to reduce the risk of predation. In bats, some research indicates that foraging activity is negatively correlated with moonlight intensity, a phenomenon better known as lunar phobia. However, the currently available evidence is contradictory because some bat species reduce their activity during nights with more moonlight while the opposite occurs in other species. We quantitatively evaluated the strength and direction of the relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity using a meta-analysis. We also looked at some ecological correlates of lunar phobia in bats. Specifically, we examined foraging habitat and latitude as potential moderators of the size of the lunar phobia effect. Our results show that, regardless of the method used to evaluate bat activity, the overall relationship between moonlight intensity and bat activity is significant and negative (r = −0.22). Species foraging on the surface of the water (piscivores and insectivores; r = −0.83) and forest canopy species (i.e., big frugivores; r = −0.30) are more affected by moonlight than those with different foraging habitats (understory, subcanopy, open air). Latitude was positively correlated with lunar phobia (r = 0.023). The stronger lunar phobia for bats foraging on the water surface and in the forest canopy may suggest that the risk of predation is greater where moonlight penetrates more easily. The significant effect of latitude as a moderator of lunar phobia suggests that there is a weak geographic pattern, with this phobia slightly more common in tropical bats than in temperate species.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1616-5047 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 97
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Author Kempinger, L.; Dittmann, R.; Rieger, D.; Helfrich-Forster, C.
Title The nocturnal activity of fruit flies exposed to artificial moonlight is partly caused by direct light effects on the activity level that bypass the endogenous clock Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 26 Issue 2 Pages 151-166
Keywords ARNTL Transcription Factors; Animals; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Darkness; Drosophila Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Drosophila melanogaster/*physiology; *Light; *Moon; Motor Activity/*physiology; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/metabolism; Period Circadian Proteins; Photoperiod; Transcription Factors/genetics/metabolism
Abstract (up) Artificial moonlight was recently shown to shift the endogenous clock of fruit flies and make them nocturnal. To test whether this nocturnal activity is partly due to masking effects of light, we exposed the clock-mutants per(01), tim(01), per(01);tim(01), cyc(01), and Clk(JRK) to light/dark and light/dim-light cycles and determined the activity level during the day and night. We found that under moonlit nights, all clock mutants shifted their activity significantly into the night, suggesting that this effect is independent of the clock. We also recorded the flies under continuous artificial moonlight and darkness to judge the effect of dim constant light on the activity level. All mutants, except Clk(JRK) flies, were significantly more active under artificial moonlight conditions than under complete darkness. Unexpectedly, we found residual rhythmicity of per(01) and especially tim(01) mutants under these conditions, suggesting that TIM and especially PER retained some activity in the absence of its respective partner. Nevertheless, as even the double mutants and the cyc(01) and Clk(JRK) mutants shifted their activity into the night, we conclude that dim light stimulates the activity of fruit flies in a clock-independent manner. Thus, nocturnal light has a twofold influence on flies: it shifts the circadian clock, and it increases nocturnal activity independently of the clock. The latter was also observed in some primates by others and might therefore be of a more general validity.
Address Institute of Zoology, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19212834 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 113
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Author Allema, A.B.; Rossing, A.H.; van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingröver, E.; van Lenteren, C.
Title Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Applied Entomology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 136 Issue 10 Pages 793–800
Keywords Animals; insects; movement activity; movement behaviour; movement speed; red light sensitivity; resting behaviour
Abstract (up) Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using camera recording under a near-infrared (nir), red or white radiation source. Red light significantly reduced movement speed in females similar to the effect of white light and different from nir. Also movement activity and pause length were affected by radiation source, with a significant difference between nir and white light, and with intermediate values in red light. The results presented here indicate that P. melanarius has different movement behaviour under the three radiation sources and suggest that nir rather than red radiation is most appropriate for measuring behaviour in total darkness. However, in the field total darkness is rare both because of natural light sources such as the moon and stars but increasingly also because of ecological light pollution, and therefore red light may still be of use for observing ecologically and practically relevant natural night-time behaviour.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 385
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