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Author (up) Allema, A.B.; Rossing, A.H.; van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingröver, E.; van Lenteren, C.
Title Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Applied Entomology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 136 Issue 10 Pages 793–800
Keywords Animals; insects; movement activity; movement behaviour; movement speed; red light sensitivity; resting behaviour
Abstract Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using camera recording under a near-infrared (nir), red or white radiation source. Red light significantly reduced movement speed in females similar to the effect of white light and different from nir. Also movement activity and pause length were affected by radiation source, with a significant difference between nir and white light, and with intermediate values in red light. The results presented here indicate that P. melanarius has different movement behaviour under the three radiation sources and suggest that nir rather than red radiation is most appropriate for measuring behaviour in total darkness. However, in the field total darkness is rare both because of natural light sources such as the moon and stars but increasingly also because of ecological light pollution, and therefore red light may still be of use for observing ecologically and practically relevant natural night-time behaviour.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 385
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Author (up) Atkinson, G.; Davenne, D.
Title Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 90 Issue 2-3 Pages 229-235
Keywords Human Health; Activity Cycles/*physiology; Animals; Body Temperature/physiology; Exercise/*physiology; Health; Humans; Motor Activity/physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Wakefulness/physiology
Abstract Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.
Address Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Henry Cotton Campus, Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK. G.Atkinson@ljmu.ac.uk
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ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:17067643; PMCID:PMC2782301 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 717
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Author (up) Bedrosian, T.A.; Fonken, L.K.; Walton, J.C.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Chronic exposure to dim light at night suppresses immune responses in Siberian hamsters Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol Lett
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 468-471
Keywords Animals; Blood Bactericidal Activity/immunology; Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Fever/immunology; Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology; *Immunity; Light/*adverse effects; Lipopolysaccharides; Locomotion; Phodopus/*immunology
Abstract Species have been adapted to specific niches optimizing survival and reproduction; however, urbanization by humans has dramatically altered natural habitats. Artificial light at night (LAN), termed 'light pollution', is an often overlooked, yet increasing disruptor of habitats, which perturbs physiological processes that rely on precise light information. For example, LAN alters the timing of reproduction and activity in some species, which decreases the odds of successful breeding and increases the threat of predation for these individuals, leading to reduced fitness. LAN also suppresses immune function, an important proxy for survival. To investigate the impact of LAN in a species naive to light pollution in its native habitat, immune function was examined in Siberian hamsters derived from wild-caught stock. After four weeks exposure to dim LAN, immune responses to three different challenges were assessed: (i) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), (ii) lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, and (iii) bactericide activity of blood. LAN suppressed DTH response and reduced bactericide activity of blood after lipopolysaccharide treatment, in addition to altering daily patterns of locomotor activity, suggesting that human encroachment on habitats via night-time lighting may inadvertently compromise immune function and ultimately fitness.
Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. tracy.bedrosian@osumc.edu
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ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21270021; PMCID:PMC3097873 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 90
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Author (up) Bedrosian, T.A.; Vaughn, C.A.; Galan, A.; Daye, G.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Nocturnal light exposure impairs affective responses in a wavelength-dependent manner Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci
Volume 33 Issue 32 Pages 13081-13087
Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/physiology/radiation effects; Fourier Analysis; Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects; Hippocampus/pathology/radiation effects; Immobility Response, Tonic/radiation effects; Light/*adverse effects; Mood Disorders/*etiology/pathology; Motor Activity/physiology/radiation effects; Phodopus; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism; Social Behavior; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism; Time Factors
Abstract Life on earth is entrained to a 24 h solar cycle that synchronizes circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior; light is the most potent entraining cue. In mammals, light is detected by (1) rods and cones, which mediate visual function, and (2) intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which primarily project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to regulate circadian rhythms. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that ipRGCs also project to limbic brain regions, suggesting that, through this pathway, light may have a role in cognition and mood. Therefore, it follows that unnatural exposure to light may have negative consequences for mood or behavior. Modern environmental lighting conditions have led to excessive exposure to light at night (LAN), and particularly to blue wavelength lights. We hypothesized that nocturnal light exposure (i.e., dim LAN) would induce depressive responses and alter neuronal structure in hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). If this effect is mediated by ipRGCs, which have reduced sensitivity to red wavelength light, then we predicted that red LAN would have limited effects on brain and behavior compared with shorter wavelengths. Additionally, red LAN would not induce c-Fos activation in the SCN. Our results demonstrate that exposure to LAN influences behavior and neuronal plasticity and that this effect is likely mediated by ipRGCs. Modern sources of LAN that contain blue wavelengths may be particularly disruptive to the circadian system, potentially contributing to altered mood regulation.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. Bedrosian.2@osu.edu
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ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23926261 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 27
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Author (up) Dacke, M.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.; Scholtz, C.H.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 298-300
Keywords Animals; Beetles/*physiology; *Behavior, Animal; Cues; Feces; *Galaxies; Locomotion; Moon; Motor Activity; Orientation/*physiology; *Stars, Celestial; Vision, Ocular/physiology; Milky Way; insects
Abstract When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.
Address Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@biol.lu.se
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23352694 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 116
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