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Author (up) Doll, C.N.H.; Muller, J.-P.; Morley, J.G.
Title Mapping regional economic activity from night-time light satellite imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Ecological Economics Abbreviated Journal Ecological Economics
Volume 57 Issue 1 Pages 75-92
Keywords Night-time light satellite imagery; Economic activity; Geographic information; Mapping; Scale
Abstract The recognition that the elements of the ‘anthropocene’ play a critical role in global change processes means that datasets describing elements of the socio-economic environment are becoming increasingly more desirable. The ability to present these data in a gridded format as opposed to the traditionally reported administrative units is advantageous for incorporation with other environmental datasets. Night-time light remote sensing data has been shown to correlate with national-level figures of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Night-time radiance data is analysed here along with regional economic productivity data for 11 European Union countries along with the United States at a number of sub-national levels. Night-time light imagery was found to correlate with Gross Regional Product (GRP) across a range of spatial scales. Maps of economic activity at 5 km resolution were produced based on the derived relationships. To produce these maps, certain areas had to be excluded due to their anomalously high levels of economic activity for the amount of total radiance present. These areas were treated separately from other areas in the map. These results provide the first detailed examination of night-time light characteristics with respect to local economic activity and highlight issues, which should be considered when undertaking such analysis.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0921-8009 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 124
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Author (up) Evans, J.A.; Carter, S.N.; Freeman, D.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Dim nighttime illumination alters photoperiodic responses of hamsters through the intergeniculate leaflet and other photic pathways Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience
Volume 202 Issue Pages 300-308
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cricetinae; Darkness; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Geniculate Bodies/*physiology; *Lighting; Male; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Visual Pathways/*physiology
Abstract In mammals, light entrains the central pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through both a direct neuronal projection from the retina and an indirect projection from the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus. Although light comparable in intensity to moonlight is minimally effective at resetting the phase of the circadian clock, dimly lit and completely dark nights are nevertheless perceived differentially by the circadian system, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for phase resetting. Under a variety of experimental paradigms, dim nighttime illumination exerts effects that may be characterized as enhancing the plasticity of circadian entrainment. For example, relative to completely dark nights, dimly lit nights accelerate development of photoperiodic responses of Siberian hamsters transferred from summer to winter day lengths. Here we assess the neural pathways underlying this response by testing whether IGL lesions eliminate the effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths. Consistent with previous work, dimly lit nights facilitated the expansion of activity duration under short day lengths. Ablation of the IGL, moreover, did not influence photoperiodic responses in animals held under completely dark nights. However, among animals that were provided dimly lit nights, IGL lesions prevented the short-day typical expansion of activity duration as well as the seasonally appropriate gonadal regression and reduction in body weight. Thus, the present data indicate that the IGL plays a central role in mediating the facilitative effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths, but in the absence of the IGL, dim light at night influences photoperiodic responses through residual photic pathways.
Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. jevans@msm.edu
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22155265; PMCID:PMC3578228 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 87
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Author (up) Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Dim nighttime illumination accelerates adjustment to timezone travel in an animal model Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 19 Issue 4 Pages R156-7
Keywords *Adaptation, Physiological; Animals; Behavior, Animal/physiology; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Humans; *Lighting; Mesocricetus; Mice; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Time Factors
Abstract Jetlag reflects a mismatch between local and circadian time following rapid timezone travel [1]. Appropriately timed bright light can shift human circadian rhythms but recovery is slow (e.g., 1-2 days per timezone). Most symptoms subside after resynchronization, but chronic jetlag may have enduring negative effects [2], including even accelerated mortality in mice [3]. Melatonin, prescription drugs, and/or exercise may help shift the clock but, like bright light, require complex schedules of application [1]. Thus, there is a need for more efficient and practical treatments for addressing jetlag. In contrast to bright daytime lighting, nighttime conditions have received scant attention. By incorporating more naturalistic nighttime lighting comparable in intensity to dim moonlight, we demonstrate that recovery after simulated jetlag is accelerated when nights are dimly lit rather than completely dark.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19243688 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 152
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Author (up) Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors
Abstract In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.
Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17660452 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31
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Author (up) Fonken, L.K.; Aubrecht, T.G.; Melendez-Fernandez, O.H.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Dim light at night disrupts molecular circadian rhythms and increases body weight Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 28 Issue 4 Pages 262-271
Keywords Animals; Blood Glucose/metabolism; Body Weight/*physiology; CLOCK Proteins/biosynthesis/genetics; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Corticosterone/metabolism; Feeding Behavior/physiology; Immunohistochemistry; Light; *Lighting; Male; Mice; Motor Activity; Polymerase Chain Reaction; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism/physiology; clock genes; feeding rhythm; light pollution; obesity
Abstract With the exception of high latitudes, life has evolved under bright days and dark nights. Most organisms have developed endogenously driven circadian rhythms that are synchronized to this daily light/dark cycle. In recent years, humans have shifted away from the naturally occurring solar light cycle in favor of artificial and sometimes irregular light schedules produced by electric lighting. Exposure to unnatural light cycles is increasingly associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome; however, the means by which environmental lighting alters metabolism are poorly understood. Thus, we exposed mice to dim light at night and investigated changes in the circadian system and metabolism. Here we report that exposure to ecologically relevant levels of dim (5 lux) light at night altered core circadian clock rhythms in the hypothalamus at both the gene and protein level. Circadian rhythms in clock expression persisted during light at night; however, the amplitude of Per1 and Per2 rhythms was attenuated in the hypothalamus. Circadian oscillations were also altered in peripheral tissues critical for metabolic regulation. Exposure to dimly illuminated, as compared to dark, nights decreased the rhythmic expression in all but one of the core circadian clock genes assessed in the liver. Additionally, mice exposed to dim light at night attenuated Rev-Erb expression in the liver and adipose tissue. Changes in the circadian clock were associated with temporal alterations in feeding behavior and increased weight gain. These results are significant because they provide evidence that mild changes in environmental lighting can alter circadian and metabolic function. Detailed analysis of temporal changes induced by nighttime light exposure may provide insight into the onset and progression of obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as other disorders involving sleep and circadian rhythm disruption.
Address Department of Neuroscience and Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. fonken.1@osu.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23929553; PMCID:PMC4033305 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 28
Permanent link to this record