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Author Jung, K.; Kalko, E.K.
Title Where forest meets urbanization: foraging plasticity of aerial insectivorous bats in an anthropogenically altered environment Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Journal of Mammalogy Abbreviated Journal J. Mammal.
Volume 91 Issue 1 Pages 144-153
Keywords animals; flying mammals; acoustic monitoring; anthropogenic influence; artificial light; bat activity; Chiroptera; habitat plasticity; moon
Abstract Given worldwide rapid human population growth resulting in degradation or loss of habitats, it is important to understand how anthropogenic factors affect species presence and activity, and consequently, how well species tolerate or adapt to anthropogenically altered environments. This study, conducted in Panama, focuses on aerial insectivorous bats, a highly mobile and ecologically important, but largely understudied group. Acoustic monitoring was used to investigate habitat use in a tropical forest-town interface and microhabitat use around streetlights differing in wavelength (type of light) and accessibility (distance to vegetation). Plasticity in microhabitat use also was examined in relation to season and moonlight. We recorded a total of 25 aerial insectivorous bat species in the study area and found a subset of 20 species in town of which 18 frequently foraged around streetlights. Bat activity (passes/min) was lowest at the forest site, highest at streetlights, and intermediate in the dark areas of town. General bat activity at streetlights was concentrated at bluish-white lights compared to yellow-white and orange lights. However, bats revealed species-specific microhabitats with regard to light type, distance to vegetation, and relative light intensity. Season and moon phase affected microhabitat use around streetlights leading to microhabitat plasticity of individual species. Thus, in the forest-town interface most, but not all, aerial insectivorous bats were present in town and regularly foraged around streetlights, suggesting a species-specific tolerance for habitat alteration. Bats foraging at streetlights used microhabitats, and some species even changed microhabitats, according to season or moon phase. This indicates species-specific requirements for microhabitats and the importance of preserving habitat heterogeneity.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1593
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Author Gaston, K.J.
Title Nighttime Ecology: The “Nocturnal Problem” Revisited Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication The American Naturalist Abbreviated Journal The American Naturalist
Volume 193 Issue 4 Pages 481-502
Keywords Ecology; activity; diel; ecosystems; macroecology; nighttime; nocturnal; time partitioning
Abstract The existence of a synthetic program of research on what was then termed the “nocturnal problem” and that we might now call “nighttime ecology” was declared more than 70 years ago. In reality, this failed to materialize, arguably as a consequence of practical challenges in studying organisms at night and instead concentrating on the existence of circadian rhythms, the mechanisms that give rise to them, and their consequences. This legacy is evident to this day, with consideration of the ecology of the nighttime markedly underrepresented in ecological research and literature. However, several factors suggest that it would be timely to revive the vision of a comprehensive research program in nighttime ecology. These include (i) that the study of the ecology of the night is being revolutionized by new and improved technologies; (ii) suggestions that, far from being a minor component of biodiversity, a high proportion of animal species are active at night; (iii) that fundamental questions about differences and connections between the ecology of the daytime and the nighttime remain largely unanswered; and (iv) that the nighttime environment is coming under severe anthropogenic pressure. In this article, I seek to reestablish nighttime ecology as a synthetic program of research, highlighting key focal topics and questions and providing an overview of the current state of understanding and developments.
Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, United Kingdom; and Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Wallotstrasse 19, 14193 Berlin, Germany; k.j.gaston(at)exeter.ac.uk
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Publisher University of Chicago Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes (up) Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2254
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Author Lopez-Ruiz, H., Nezamuddin, N., Al Hassan, R., & Muhsen, A.
Title Estimating Freight Transport Activity Using Nighttime Lights Satellite Data in China, India and Saudi Arabia Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication EconPapers Abbreviated Journal
Volume ks--2019-mp07 Issue Pages
Keywords Remote Sensing; Freight; shipping; freight transport activity; FTA; China; India; Saudi Arabia; Transportation; nighttime lights; NTL
Abstract This paper focuses on the methodology for estimating total freight transport activity (FTA) for three countries — China, India and Saudi Arabia — with the objective of building on current state-of-the-art transportation modeling in three key areas: Studying the relationship between nighttime lights (NTL) and FTA allows for an estimation of full transportation datasets for countries where only a few observation points exist or where data is unavailable. Establishing the foundation for future work on how to use this approach in transport flow estimation (origin-destination matrices). Determining whether this approach can be used globally, given the coverage of the satellite data used. The paper uses the KAPSARC Transport Analysis Framework (KTAF), which estimates transport activity from freely available global data sources, satellite images and NTL. It is a tool for estimating freight transport activity that can be used in models to measure the impact of an accelerated transport policy planning approach. The methodology offers a solution to inadequate data access and allows for scenario building in policy planning for transportation. This approach allows for quick estimation of the effects of policy measures and economic changes on transportation activities at a global level. The paper also includes a detailed guide on how to replicate the methodology used in this analysis.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2639
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Author Atkinson, G.; Davenne, D.
Title Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 90 Issue 2-3 Pages 229-235
Keywords Human Health; Activity Cycles/*physiology; Animals; Body Temperature/physiology; Exercise/*physiology; Health; Humans; Motor Activity/physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Wakefulness/physiology
Abstract Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.
Address Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Henry Cotton Campus, Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK. G.Atkinson@ljmu.ac.uk
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
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Notes (up) PMID:17067643; PMCID:PMC2782301 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 717
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors
Abstract In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.
Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu
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ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
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Notes (up) PMID:17660452 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31
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