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Author Kohyama, J.
Title (up) A newly proposed disease condition produced by light exposure during night: asynchronization Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Brain & Development Abbreviated Journal Brain Dev
Volume 31 Issue 4 Pages 255-273
Keywords Adolescent; Adult; Biological Clocks; Child; Child, Preschool; Chronotherapy; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Complementary Therapies; Humans; Infant; Japan; *Light; Motor Activity; Phototherapy; Serotonin/metabolism; Sleep; Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm/*physiopathology/therapy; Students; Wakefulness
Abstract The bedtime of preschoolers/pupils/students in Japan has become progressively later with the result sleep duration has become progressively shorter. With these changes, more than half of the preschoolers/pupils/students in Japan recently have complained of daytime sleepiness, while approximately one quarter of junior and senior high school students in Japan reportedly suffer from insomnia. These preschoolers/pupils/students may be suffering from behaviorally induced insufficient sleep syndrome due to inadequate sleep hygiene. If this diagnosis is correct, they should be free from these complaints after obtaining sufficient sleep by avoiding inadequate sleep hygiene. However, such a therapeutic approach often fails. Although social factors are often involved in these sleep disturbances, a novel clinical notion--asynchronization--can further a deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of these disturbances. The essence of asynchronization is a disturbance in various aspects (e.g., cycle, amplitude, phase and interrelationship) of the biological rhythms that normally exhibit circadian oscillation, presumably involving decreased activity of the serotonergic system. The major trigger of asynchronization is hypothesized to be a combination of light exposure during the night and a lack of light exposure in the morning. In addition to basic principles of morning light and an avoidance of nocturnal light exposure, presumable potential therapeutic approaches for asynchronization involve both conventional ones (light therapy, medications (hypnotics, antidepressants, melatonin, vitamin B12), physical activation, chronotherapy) and alternative ones (kampo, pulse therapy, direct contact, control of the autonomic nervous system, respiration (qigong, tanden breathing), chewing, crawling). A morning-type behavioral preference is described in several of the traditional textbooks for good health. The author recommends a morning-type behavioral lifestyle as a way to reduce behavioral/emotional problems, and to lessen the likelihood of falling into asynchronization.
Address Department of Pediatrics, Tokyo Kita Shakai Hoken Hospital, 4-17-56 Akabanedai, Tokyo, Japan. j-kohyama@tokyokita-jadecom.jp
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0387-7604 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18757146 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 297
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Author Sinam, B.; Sharma, S.; Thakurdas, P.; Joshi, D.S.
Title (up) Bright photophase accelerates re-entrainment after experimental jetlag in Drosophila Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Die Naturwissenschaften Abbreviated Journal Naturwissenschaften
Volume 99 Issue 7 Pages 575-578
Keywords Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Drosophila/*physiology/*radiation effects; *Light; Motor Activity/physiology; *Photoperiod
Abstract The efficacy of bright photophase (BP) in accelerating the re-entrainment of Drosophila biarmipes rhythm following 8 h phase advance and delay of light-dark (LD) cycle was examined by subjecting the flies to 24 h LD cycles with dim photophase (DP) at 30 lx and BP at 300 lx. Re-entrainment was analysed by using the activity onset, activity offset and the duration of activity. Following LD advance or delay, the BP flies re-entrained faster than the DP flies which was attributed to the enhanced zeitgeber strength of BP. Nevertheless, the re-entrainment was a protracted process even in the BP flies since the activity offsets underwent more transients than the activity onsets. Thus, this study demonstrates that the BP accelerates the re-entrainment in D. biarmipes. It, however, also reveals that the re-entrainment is a prolonged process when the activity onset and offset are regarded as the rhythm markers.
Address Center for Biological Rhythm Research, Ahmednagar College, Ahmednagar, 414001, MS, India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0028-1042 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22684252 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 109
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Author Sherman, H.; Gutman, R.; Chapnik, N.; Meylan, J.; le Coutre, J.; Froy, O.
Title (up) Caffeine alters circadian rhythms and expression of disease and metabolic markers Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Int J Biochem Cell Biol
Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 829-838
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Biological Markers/blood/metabolism; Body Weight/drug effects/physiology; Caffeine/*pharmacology; Caloric Restriction; Circadian Rhythm/*drug effects/genetics/physiology; *Disease/genetics; Eating/drug effects/physiology; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects/genetics; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Inflammation/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Motor Activity/drug effects/physiology
Abstract The circadian clock regulates many aspects of physiology, energy metabolism, and sleep. Restricted feeding (RF), a regimen that restricts the duration of food availability entrains the circadian clock. Caffeine has been shown to affect both metabolism and sleep. However, its effect on clock gene and clock-controlled gene expression has not been studied. Here, we tested the effect of caffeine on circadian rhythms and the expression of disease and metabolic markers in the serum, liver, and jejunum of mice supplemented with caffeine under ad libitum (AL) feeding or RF for 16 weeks. Caffeine significantly affected circadian oscillation and the daily levels of disease and metabolic markers. Under AL, caffeine reduced the average daily mRNA levels of certain disease and inflammatory markers, such as liver alpha fetoprotein (Afp), C-reactive protein (Crp), jejunum alanine aminotransferase (Alt), growth arrest and DNA damage 45beta (Gadd45beta), Interleukin 1alpha (Il-1alpha), Il-1beta mRNA and serum plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Under RF, caffeine reduced the average daily levels of Alt, Gadd45beta, Il-1alpha and Il-1beta mRNA in the jejunum, but not in the liver. In addition, caffeine supplementation led to decreased expression of catabolic factors under RF. In conclusion, caffeine affects circadian gene expression and metabolism possibly leading to beneficial effects mainly under AL feeding.
Address Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1357-2725 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21352949 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 810
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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Fonken, L.K.; Walton, J.C.; Nelson, R.J.
Title (up) Chronic exposure to dim light at night suppresses immune responses in Siberian hamsters Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol Lett
Volume 7 Issue 3 Pages 468-471
Keywords Animals; Blood Bactericidal Activity/immunology; Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Fever/immunology; Hypersensitivity, Delayed/immunology; *Immunity; Light/*adverse effects; Lipopolysaccharides; Locomotion; Phodopus/*immunology
Abstract Species have been adapted to specific niches optimizing survival and reproduction; however, urbanization by humans has dramatically altered natural habitats. Artificial light at night (LAN), termed 'light pollution', is an often overlooked, yet increasing disruptor of habitats, which perturbs physiological processes that rely on precise light information. For example, LAN alters the timing of reproduction and activity in some species, which decreases the odds of successful breeding and increases the threat of predation for these individuals, leading to reduced fitness. LAN also suppresses immune function, an important proxy for survival. To investigate the impact of LAN in a species naive to light pollution in its native habitat, immune function was examined in Siberian hamsters derived from wild-caught stock. After four weeks exposure to dim LAN, immune responses to three different challenges were assessed: (i) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), (ii) lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, and (iii) bactericide activity of blood. LAN suppressed DTH response and reduced bactericide activity of blood after lipopolysaccharide treatment, in addition to altering daily patterns of locomotor activity, suggesting that human encroachment on habitats via night-time lighting may inadvertently compromise immune function and ultimately fitness.
Address Department of Neuroscience, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210, USA. tracy.bedrosian@osumc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21270021; PMCID:PMC3097873 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 90
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R.
Title (up) Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367
Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors
Abstract In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.
Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:17660452 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31
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